TOEFL100点以上を目指す社会人の方のための集中勉強会のご案内です。

一回の受講で、100点までの道のりが明確に見えるようになりますので、安心してその後の勉強を実施することができます。

TOEFL学習記録183

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引き続き今日も中国本のW Integratedの練習
この中から本番で出る可能性があるので、やっておいて損はない。

W Integratedを書くときのポイント:
自分のテンプレートを一つ決め、10個くらい練習して、本番でスムーズにタイプできるようにしておくこと。
高級な語彙をたくさん入れるとE-raterの得点が上がるので、私の導入段落を参考にすると良いと思う。
導入部以外は、どんなテンプレートでもよい。Readingの主張を先に書いてもよいし、Listeningを先に書いてもよい。
結論の段落は、不要。
RよりもLの内容を多めに書く。Rの説明に1-2文、Lの説明に2文以上。
各文の前に、必ず The author states (contends, claims, etc.), The professor says (states, explains, etc)をくどいほど入れる。
Rの内容はできればパラフレーズする。
Lが聞けるかが勝負なので、Lが弱い人は、韓流本のL本などを買って毎日地道にL力をつける。長期間(最低6か月)かかります。
最低でも20個くらいは練習して、15分で書けるような実力をつける。残りの5分で徹底的にミスを撲滅する。これがとても大切です。


Page 160
  The reading passage presents three theories to corroborate its assertion that the T-rex was a fast running predator. However, the professor negates these theories by providing three convincing rebuttals. He believes that the T-rex was not a swift runner.

  The first theory presented in the reading is that the T-rex’s teeth marks were found on small fast running dinosaur’s remains, indicating the T-rex was running fast to catch the prey. In addition, the reading states that the T-rex was a predator that did not eat dead meat. Conversely, the professor claims that the T-rex did eat dead bodies when it was hungry. The professor says that it had a highly developed smelling system, thus was capable of smelling a dead body miles away.

  The second theory given in the reading passage is that hind legs of the T-rex are similar to those of tigers, which are fast moving animals. Contrarily, the professor contends that the wall of the bones of the T-rex was very thin like that of birds and that trying to run fast would end up with broken bones.

  The third theory described in the reading passage is that a relative of the T-rex, Kryptops palaios, was a fast running species based on fossil evidence of foot prints whose strides were farther apart than its normal stride. Contrariwise, the professor claims that while the head of Kryptops was small, that of the T-rex was much larger and thus it would be very difficult to run fast with his head so heavy.
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Page 169
The reading presents three theories as to by whom and when a medical manuscript called Voynich Manuscript was made. However, the professor negates these by providing three convincing rebuttals. He believes that none of these theories is correct.

The first theory given in the reading passage is that an unknown person with a name starting with a capital letter A made this book. Conversely, the professor contends that one cannot conclude anything from a letter A written near a figure. the professor says that it could mean anything such as the first initial, the last initial, or a part of the code of the book.

The second theory described in the reading passage is that the book was a fake magic book of 16th century. Contrarily, the professor tells that it was not an easy task to forge a book like this; the person must have vast knowledge about the magic and alchemy. the professor claims that Buyers of this kind of book must have much knowledge to detect any counterfeit books. the professor further says that it was not worth making such a falsified book considering the time and effort required to make the book.

The third theory given in the reading is that the book was a modern fake by Mr. Voynich. Contrariwise, the professor claims that the paint and ink used for the book were consistent with those of 400 years ago in Europe.

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Page 179
Curved stone balls are a common archeological finding in the U.K. What purposes did they have? The reading passage presents three theories, while the professor negates these by providing three convincing rebuttals. He believes that each of these theories is either illogical or untenable.

The first theory given in the reading passage is that the balls were used as weapons in war. Conversely, the professor contends that no chippings or cracks are found on the balls, which is not natural if the balls were thrown at enemies.

The second theory identified in the reading is that the balls were measuring tools to weigh trading materials, as they are similar in size. Contrarily, the professor asserts that the balls are made of different materials such as basalt and sand and the weight of the balls differs from one material to another, though the size might be the same. Thus, the balls could not be used as weights.

The third theory described in the reading passage is that the balls were status symbols for noblemen. Contrariwise, the professor claims that some balls are plain and simple without any decorations and they are not buried in noblemen’s tombs, which implies that the balls were not considered to be important objects for noblemen at that time.

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my note


私のメモ:
男女:ナレーターが男か女かに丸をつけます。作文でhis(her) argumentと使い分ける必要があるので。
6つの枠を作ってRとLの内容をメモします。ほとんど英語ですが漢字も使います。



Page 189
The reading presents three strategies to eradicate the rootworms in North America. However, the professor negates these by providing three convincing rebuttals. He believes that these tactics have some problems.

The first method mentioned in the reading is that pesticides are highly effective in reducing the number of the rootworms. Conversely, the professor asserts that pesticides are not 100 percent effective as some species have naturally born resistance to pesticides. In addition, they transfer this resistance to their offspring so that over time pesticides would become less and less effective.

The second tactics mentioned in the reading is that sowing corns as early as possible, so that by the time eggs hatch in warm conditions, the roots are fully grown and the rootworms have nothing to eat. On the contrary, the professor contends that corns planted early in cold regions would suffer damage from frost and snowstorms. This damage is equal to or greater than the damage by rootworms themselves.

The third method suggested in the reading is crop rotation, that is, planting soybeans and corns in alternate years, so that the rootworms would starve to death when hatched in a year of soybean planting. On the other hand, the professor claims that some eggs of the rootworms stay in the soil for two years and my hatch and damage corns with a vengeance.

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Page 199

The reading suggests that dinosaurs had blood cells, blood vessels, and bone marrow, similar to those of modern animals. However, the professor negates these by providing her convincing rebuttals. He believes that each evidence is either groundless or uncorroborated.

The first theory given in the reading is that red material was found in the bones of dinosaurs, which suggests that dinosaurs had blood cells. Conversely, the professor asserts that the blood red color changes to brown over time and blood millions years ago could not stay red. The red material must have been some red mineral.

The second theory presented in the reading is that iron spheres found near the bones must be the indication of hemoglobin in blood cells. On the contrary, the professor contends that the iron came from colonies of bacteria that ate dead dinosaurs.

The third theory described in the reading passage is that collagen was found in the bones and its chemical composition was similar to that of bone marrow. On the other hand, the professor claims that collagen must be gone after 70 million years. The collagen must have derived from the skin of one of the researchers who handled the bones without using rubber gloves.

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Page 209

The reading presents three theories as to why whales beach themselves. However, the professor negates each of these theories by providing her own convincing rebuttals. He believes that each of such theories is either nonsensical or idiotic.

The first theory given in the reading is that whales do not attempt to commit suicides, but when they are affected by illness, they get disoriented and beach themselves. Conversely, the professor asserts that scientists could not find any signs of illness when they checked those whales beached themselves.

The second theory provided in the reading is that sonar from military ships disrupted the navigational systems of whales. On the other hand, the professor claims that the military sonar uses medium-frequency waves and they do not interfere with whales as whales use low-frequency waves for their navigation.

The third theory identified in the reading is that changes in the magnetic fields before earthquakes disrupted whales. On the contrary, the professor says that scientists could not find any records of earthquakes when and where whales beached themselves. If there had been an earthquake when a whale beached, it must have been a pure coincidence.

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[ 2014/06/01 00:06 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(-)
プロフィール

Andy

Author:Andy
プロフィール:

TOEIC 990点
英検1級合格二次試験100点(優秀賞)
TOEFL iBT 119点

名前:Andy
年齢:59歳
学歴:University of Missouri at Rolla 工学部原子力工学科卒業
職業:技術系の通訳を30年以上やっています。

仕事柄、欧米人と仕事をすることが多く、Andyというニックネームを使っています。
北陸の田舎に住んでいます。毎週、北陸新幹線にお世話になっています。
コシヒカリを食べて育った純粋な日本人です。アメリカ人、ハーフではありません。
韓国語、中国語は全くできません。

毎月TOEFLを受験しています。
ソラシティ、武蔵小杉、テンプル大学麻布校3階が好きな会場です。

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