USHER Q4 私の答え

Usher speaking

USHER Q4 私の答え

Test 1
According to the reading, plants in rainforests make adaptations to limited sun light and excessive amount of water. The professor discusses two examples of adaptations of urn plants.

First, he describes that urn plants have ring-shaped leaves with holes in the center. This allows plants to store water for a long time. Also, water directly goes to the root to protect branches and leaves.

Second, he describes that urn plants have dark-color leaves in spiral form to gather sun light as much as possible for photosynthesis.

These examples demonstrate adaptation of urn plants in rainforests. (45 seconds)

Test 2
According to the reading, exaptation is a feature of an animal that provides unintended functions. The professor discusses an example of herons.

First, he describes herons have wings to fly as the original function.

Second, he describes that herons use long wings to block the sun light to be able to see fish in water and catch them easily.

The use of wings in this unintended purpose of catching fish is a good example of exaptation.

Thanks for listening and your patience. Hope you have a great day. (42 seconds)

Test 3
According to the reading, optimal foraging is a way an animal maximizes a food source while minimizing consumed energy. The professor describes an example of Northwestern crows dropping welks.

First, he describes that a crow lifts a welk into air and drop it to break the shell and eats the meat.

Second, he describes that the bird calculates an optimum height just enough to break the shell with a minimum energy consumption. If the bird flies too high, it wastes too much energy, while if the bird flies too low, the shell will not break.

This example demonstrates how a northwestern crow utilizes a minimum foraging technique.

Thanks for listening and your patience. Hope you have a great day. (50 seconds)

Test 4
According to the reading, mental accounting is how people encode, categorize and evaluate economic outcomes. The professor describes her own experience to explain this.

She had two jobs, an office job on weekdays and a waitress job on weekends. She saved the income from the office job in a saving account for buying a house, while she spent money from the waitress job without any constraints.

She managed two income sources separately. However, if she had saved the salary from the waitress job, she could have bought a house earlier.

This example demonstrates mental accounting.

Thanks for listening and your patience. Hope you have a great day. (45 seconds)
Test 5
According to the reading, selling techniques are the ways to motivate consumers to buy products. The professor describes two examples to explain them.

First, the professor explains a producer developing a new product based on existing technologies. For example, an established electronics company can develop a new TV monitor without much design work and can sell them easily using the established brand image.
Second, the professor explains a company developing complimentary products. For example, a well established snowboard maker can produce related products such jackets and gloves easily using the established brand loyalty.

These examples demonstrate selling techniques. (50 seconds)

Test 6
According to the reading, environmental disturbances cause changes that have impact on the plants living there and their way of growing. The professor explains an example of bluegrass to describe this.

First, he describes that bluegrass when fully grown becomes two or three feet tall and blocks the sunlight for other shorter plants.

Second, he explains that to solve this problem, cows are released in the area to eradicate the bluegrass, so that other shorter plants can survive through photosynthesis.

This example demonstrates environmental disturbances caused by nature.

Thanks for listening and your patience. Hope you have a great day. Good bye now. (52 seconds)
Test 7

According to the reading, bait pricing is a marketing technique used by a shop to lure customers into the shop by using extremely low price bait products. The professor explains two examples to describe this.

First, the professor describes a Christmas sales. He received a flyer for a DVD player for 20 dollars, but he ended up buying a 50 dollar model at the shop as the bait product was already sold out.

Second, the professor describes selling a new product at an extremely low introductory price. Customers tend to buy the product, becomes familiar with the product and buy it again later at a higher price.

These examples demonstrate bait pricing.

(52 seconds)

Test 8
According to the reading, evolution in action is for a plant to make rapid changes in its structure or functions to adjust to changes in environment created by human intervention. The professor describes mint plants to explain this.

First, the professor describes that mint plants once grown in woods moved to residential areas after people cutting trees in woods.

Second, the professor describes that after lawn mowers were invented, mint plants changed their growing direction from vertical to horizontal to survive the attack of lawn mowers.

These examples demonstrate evolution in action.

Thanks for listening and your patience. Hope you have a great day. Good bye now. (52 seconds)
Test 9

According to the reading, prenatal learning is the ability of embryos to learn by listening during the pregnant period. The professor uses an example of murres to explain this.

Murres are sea-dwelling birds and make huge colonies. When mother birds come back to their nests, it is very difficult to locate their babies among a large number of other birds. To solve this problem, mother birds speak to eggs so that their voices are imprinted on the brains of chicks before hatching. After hatching, babies can respond to the chirping of mothers and mothers can easily locate their babies in the colony.

This is a good example of prenatal learning.

Thanks for listening and you have a great day. (52 seconds)
Test 10
According to the reading, choice-supportive bias is our behavior to focus on positive aspects of a decision already made and forget negative feathers of those options that were not selected. This is done to justify the decision and not to regret the decision. The professor uses an example of her friend to explain this.

Her friend wanted to buy a house and had difficult time deciding because of pros and cons. The house was close to her job, but it was too small. At the end she bought it.

A few years later, her friend talked about her house and emphasized how convenient the house was because of proximity to the job, but never mentioned the small size of the house.

This is a good example of choice supportive bias.

Thanks for listening. Have a great day.
(53 seconds)
Test 11
According to the reading, specialist species are those animals that live in limited areas and eat only limited foods. The professor explains an example of Koalas.

Koalas primarily eat eucalyptus leaves that can be toxic to other animals. So, Koalas have no competition over food and they live in areas without being threatened by other animals.

However, when eucalyptus trees are cut down by humans, koalas lose their habitats, and they are recognized as a threatened species.

In summary, this example demonstrates special species.

Thanks for listening and have a great day. Bye bye now. (50 seconds)

Test 12

According to the reading, an employer may hire a test customer, a third party person hired by the employer, to evaluate the performance of employees without prejudice. The professor uses an example of a restaurant manager to explain this.

First, the manager tried to evaluate his waiters and waitresses by himself, but this was of no use. The staff, knowing they were being monitored by the manager, they sort of acted to be good performers.

So, the manager hired an outside person to disguise as a customer to evaluate his employees. As the staff acted normally, the test customer was able to evaluate the employees correctly and fairly and reported the result to the manager.

So, this example demonstrates test customer.
(55 seconds)

[ 2013/06/11 19:03 ] TOEFL | TB(-) | CM(0)



TOEIC 990点
TOEFL iBT 119点

学歴:University of Missouri at Rolla 工学部原子力工学科卒業


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