TOEFL100点以上を目指す社会人の方のための集中勉強会のご案内です。

一回の受講で、100点までの道のりが明確に見えるようになりますので、安心してその後の勉強を実施することができます。

TOEFL MAP ACTUAL TEST Speaking Q6 私の解答

Actual test speaking 1

TOEFL MAP ACTUAL TEST Speaking Q6

Test 1
The professor explains two negative impacts of roads on ecology.
First, roads and cars can carry weeds to new locations. For example, a car can carry seeds from a forest to other new locations, and weeds grow in new locations and may disturb the local ecology.
Second, roads create barriers for animal migrations. Take pronghorns for example. They are reluctant to cross roads and my die due to starvation. Other animals such as snakes, frogs, and porcupines can cross roads without problems but may get hit by cars when crossing.

模範解答は長すぎて、60秒では無理。
Weeds outcompete flowers and crops for precious soil and water resources.
I know that every marriage - and every relationship for that matter - has its ups and downs.
When you drive to the park, forest, or anywhere else for that matter, your vehicle picks up weed seeds.
Roads present animals with unnatural obstacles.
----------------------------------------------------------
Test 2

The professor explains two types of feathers loons have to keep them warm and dry in winter.
The outer feathers give colors and shapes of loons and function as keeping the inner feathers and the skin dry as they repel water. They also function as a diver’s suit when loons dive into water to catch fish.
The inner feathers are called down feathers. They are soft and fluffy and function as thermal insulator to keep the loons warm.

Crustaceans 甲殻類
------------------------------------------------
Test 3
The professor explains two types of human immune systems to protect our bodies from pathogens.
The inner immune systems include our skin and mucus. The skin provides a shell to stop pathogens entering our bodies. The mucus covers our respiratory system from throat to lung and trap pathogens.
The outer immune systems include white cells that find and kill pathogens. The digestive track also kills pathogens by using acids and bacteria.

There are two parts to the human immune system.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Test 4
The professor explains two ways animal change their fur according to seasons.
First, bears, rabbits, and cats have thick layer of fur during winter to survive in cold climate. In summer, they shed fur to prevent overheating. As winter approaches, they grow thick fur again.
Second, rabbits change the color of fur to escape from predators. In summer, the fur is brown to blend in woods. In winter, the fur changes to white to blend in snow, so that predators cannot spot them easily.

Yet in places further south where the seasons and weather conditions differ, the fur of many animals changes in response to the varying conditions.
Animals rid themselves of extra fur which could cause their bodies to overheat in hot summer conditions. Rid A of B.
This lets them more easily camouflage themselves in the snow.
-----------------------------------------------------
Test 5
The professor explains two types of playing by children.
The first one is associative play. Children play freely without rules and goals. All ages of children play in this way once they develop motor and cognitive skills. For example, two children in a sand box with some toys play freely as they please and do whatever comes to mind.
The second type is called cooperative play. Children play together to achieve a goal under some rules. They learn how to cooperate and interact with other kids. Children above age two perform this kind of play.

Children do as they please and do anything that their imaginations come up with.
Doing whatever comes to mind.
Sports and board games are prime examples of activities that involve cooperative play.
-----------------------------------------------------

Test 6
The professor explains two animals that perform group feeding.
First, lions are predators and form a group to attack a prey. They corner a prey, kill it and eat it together.
Second, deer is a prey and they live together to eat plants. While some deer watch predators, other deer eat plants. Then they rotate the roles, so that everyone can have chances of eating.

Lions live in prides. 群れ
Many preys are faster than lions, so they can elude a single lion.
Elude the press 報道陣をかわす、から逃げる
This enables each deer to spend an optimal amount of time feeding while only having to be on guard for a short time.
---------------------------------------------
Test 7
The professor explains two plants that have aerial roots, that is, roots above ground.

First, mangrove trees grow in coastal areas and they have aerial roots. There are two functions of the aerial roots. One is to stay away from salinity of sea water, and the other being able to absorb nutrients by taking gas from air.
Second, maze is a kind of corn plant which has both normal underground roots and additional aerial roots called brace roots. Maze has a thin and tall stem loaded with corn, so the brace roots provide support to the long stem.

Fully laden car (loaded car)
Laden with corn コーンの荷物を積んだ
-----------------------------------------------
Test 8
The professor explains two kinds of adaptations by Arctic animals.
First, animals have protective layers to keep them warm. Take bears for example. They have two layers of protection, one is fat and the other being fur to protect them from cold climate. Birds have fat and feathers to protect them from coldness.
Second, animals have special body traits to protect them from cold temperatures. Fox and hare have small round bodies with short legs. The small body helps protect critical internal organs and shorter legs help reduce the heat loss due to their smaller surface area.

The fat and fur act like insulation as they keep out the cold while retaining the heat the body generates.
Keep out the cold 寒さを遮る
Keep out dusts
Keep out drafts
Keep out the sun 遮る
It grows thick feathers, even on its extremities.
---------------------------------------------------------
Test 9
When a company is in financial troubles, the professor explains two actions that can be taken to reduce costs and improve sales.
First, the company can perform a downsizing, which is to reduce the number of employees or eliminating some divisions. This way, the company may be able to reduce costs and become profitable again.
Second, the company can offer discounts on its products and services. As the price becomes lower, customers may start buying the product again and the company can regain a higher sales volume. As the original price includes a high markup, the discount will not result in a loss and the company can maintain a small profit by increasing the sales volume.

Downsizing has become the go-to strategy of many companies upon suffering financial difficulties.
Several workers at each department are let go. 解雇される
Most companies give their products high markups over the basic production. 利幅、値上げ
-----------------------------------------------------
Test 10
The professor explains two eye positions of birds and their advantages.

First, predator birds such as hawks and falcons have their eyes in the front of heads. They can see far distance and have better depth perception. This helps them to locate a prey from high in the air and dive to the prey easily.

Second, prey birds have eyes on the sides of the heads. This way, they can see predators coming from the sides or from behind. However, their view to the front is poor, and they compensate for this by moving their heads.

---------------------------------------------------
Test 11
The professor explains two animal species taking advantages of wet lands.

First, sharks come to wetlands to lay eggs, so that baby sharks can feed and grow without being attacked by predators of open oceans.

Second, sandpipers come to wetlands to feed and rest. They migrate long distance every season. Wetlands provide them with foods such as insects and worms and also resting places prior to moving to the next destinations.

Invertebrate 無脊椎動物
Vertebrate 脊椎動物
Wet lands protect young sharks from the dangers that lurk in the open ocean. Lurk in ~に潜む
Once they are more mature, they head out to the ocean.
Once full and rested, they continue with the next stage of their journey.
Continue with the next stage of the project
------------------------------------------
Test 12
The professor explains two examples of mutualism between ants and trees.
First, acacia ants and acacia trees. The trees provide nectar to ants, while the ants provide soldiers to protect trees from other enemy insects. Ants also eat other plants nearby, so that trees can receive more sun light.
Second, lemon ants and Duroia hirsute trees. The ants release acid to kill all other plants, resulting in a large area of only this plant. This is called devil’s garden. In return, the trees provide shelter and foods to the ants.

Herbivores herbivores herbivores vores herbivores
Carnivores carnivores carnivores vores carnivores スペルが難しい
----------------------------------------------------------------

Test 13
The professor explains two features when a company develops a new product.
First, the product should be easy to use. Take a ketchup glass bottle, for example. Often ketchup won’t come out or a large amount comes out at once. So the company developed a squeezable plastic bottle. Now a right amount of ketchup comes out.
Second, the product should be attractive to consumers. Take a cookie container, for example. A company developed a tin box with beautiful paintings on it. Customers love this because they can use the box as a decoration after eating cookies.

Ketchup would come out in too great an amount.
Take cookie container as an example.
This makes customers more likely to buy the products in the first place since they can get another use out of them.
-----------------------------------------------------------
Test 14
The professor explains two types of defenses used by animals.
The first is physical defense. Take walking sticks for example. They blend in tree branches so that predators cannot locate them. Grasshoppers detach their legs to escape from predators.
The second is chemical defenses. Stinkbugs release bad smell substance to deter predators. Bees and hornets have stingers to inject toxin to predators.
These examples demonstrate defenses by animals.

Predators think of insects as tasty treats.
Insect physical defenses come in a variety of forms.
Awful-smelling chemicals, awful, awful, awful, awful, awful
The smell is so intense that it drives predators away, thereby saving the stinkbug’s life.
Typing practice: awful, awful, away, away, away, awful
Environmental problems are akin to drug trafficking: individuals have neither the power nor the resources to address the problems.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Test 15
The professor explains two animals that help keep soil healthy.
First, earth worms eat soil, grind organic matters, and release them as nutrients into soil. They also release sticky material to make soil compact. Furthermore, they create gaps in soil for air and water retention.
Second, elephants eat a large amount of vegetation and release about 100 kg per day of manure that give nutrients such as nitrogen into soil and improve the soil productivity.

Spell: Retention, retention, retention, retention, retention, retention, attention,
--------------------------------------------------------------
Test 16
The professor explains two kinds of defenses used by animals.
The first is active defenses. Those animals having claws, teeth, and horns fight against predators. They do not have to run away from predators. For example, bulls and rhinos have horns, and cats, wolves, and bears have claws and sharp teeth to fight against predators.
The second is passive defenses. Deer and antelopes flee at fast speed when faced with a predator. Grass snakes and possums play dead. When they spot a predator, they roll over and play like they are dead. Once the predator departs, they rise and escape.

Spell: rhinoceros, rhinoceros, rhinoceros, rhinoceros, rhinoceros, rhinoceros, opossum, opossum, opossum, opossum,フクロネズミ
Those animals stand their ground and fight. 一歩も引かず戦う
I intend to stand my ground. 譲歩するつもりはありません。
They flee at the first sight of danger.
---------------------------------------------------
Test 17
The professor explains two countermeasures farmers use to prevent the soil erosion.
First, farmers plant crops with deep root systems. Deep roots anchor the soil and prevent the soil from being blown away by strong winds. Tomato and broccoli are good examples.
Second, farmers establish various barriers such as line of trees to block winds. Mulch and plastic sheets are used to cover the top surface of the soil. Stone walls and ditches are used to control the water erosion of the soil.
These examples demonstrate effective soil erosion prevention measures.


Mulch  木くずなどで土地の表面を覆うこと
Spell: erosion, erosion, erosion, erosion, erosion
-------------------------------------------------------------
Test 18
The professor explains two adaptations of animals living in mountain areas.
First, animals have thick fur to withstand the cold climate and strong winds. Take mountain goats for example. They grow thick fur during winter and shed it during summer.
Second, animals have specialized legs and hooves. For example, big horn sheep have large hooves and strong legs, so that they can move easily in rocky mountain surfaces without slipping or falling.
These examples demonstrate adaptations of animals living in high altitudes.

Hoof ひずめ、hooves
They must be able to negotiate the rocky landscape.
The thick fur protect it from the elements such as snow and wind.
----------------------------------------------------------------
これでこの本の18セット終了。


[タグ未指定]
[ 2013/05/10 21:35 ] TOEFL | TB(-) | CM(0)
コメントの投稿












管理者にだけ表示を許可する
プロフィール

Andy

Author:Andy
プロフィール:

TOEIC 990点
英検1級合格二次試験100点(優秀賞)
TOEFL iBT 119点(2015年7月11日、2年間有効)

名前:Andy
年齢:59歳
学歴:University of Missouri at Rolla 工学部原子力工学科卒業
職業:技術系の通訳を30年以上やっています。

仕事柄、欧米人と仕事をすることが多く、Andyというニックネームを使っています。
北陸の田舎に住んでいます。毎週、北陸新幹線にお世話になっています。
コシヒカリを食べて育った純粋な日本人です。
韓国語、中国語は全くできません。

毎月TOEFLを受験しています。
ソラシティ、武蔵小杉、テンプル大学麻布校3階が好きな会場です。

最新トラックバック
カレンダー
03 | 2017/04 | 05
- - - - - - 1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15
16 17 18 19 20 21 22
23 24 25 26 27 28 29
30 - - - - - -
FC2カウンター
アクセスランキング
[ジャンルランキング]
未設定
--位
アクセスランキングを見る>>

[サブジャンルランキング]
未設定
--位
アクセスランキングを見る>>
天気予報

-天気予報コム- -FC2-
ブロとも一覧