TOEFL100点以上を目指す社会人の方のための集中勉強会のご案内です。

一回の受講で、100点までの道のりが明確に見えるようになりますので、安心してその後の勉強を実施することができます。

TOEFL学習記録139

TOEFL Speaking Task 6 の練習を続けます。

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6-1
The professor explains two ways domesticated animals were used as food sources in ancient times.
First, each family kept several goats. When they want to eat meat, they could kill a goat to obtain meat immediately and conveniently.
Second, they produced secondary products from milk of goats, such as cheese and yogurt. This way, they addressed the problems of food shortage.
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6-2
The professor explains two adaptations of red wood to survive for a long time.
First, red woods release a chemical toxic substance. This functions as a pesticide to kill harmful insects and protect red woods.
Second, red woods have deep root systems. Deep roots not only help them obtain nutrients and water from the ground but also provide structural support to them, so that the trees would not fall down during strong storms
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6-3
The professor explains two ways ants transport water to their nests.
First, each ant move a single droplet of water to the nest. As the number of ants of each nest is significant, this is a effective method of transporting water.
Second, ants can use a water container such as a feather to gather enough water, and transport a feather filled with water at once.
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6-4
The professor explains two benefits of wild fires.
First, wild fires provide animals with new habitats. Take woodpeckers for example. They find new homes in burned branches.
Second, wild fires burn everything on the ground and provide a new ground for growing new grasses. Often, new grasses are more nutritious and deer and other herbivores love to eat them.
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6-5
The professor explains two ways insects survive winter.
First, a species of butterfly opens up its wings to face the sun to absorb as much thermal energy as possible.
Second, a kind of fly freezes itself before the winter and unfreezes when the spring comes.
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6-6
The professor explains two ways ants secure foods they found.
First, when an ant finds a food that is too heavy for him to carry, he will go back to the nest to ask for others to help. Before leaving the food, the ant releases chemical substance on the food to deter other animals.
Second, ants place small stones and pebbles around the food so that other animals cannot access the food.
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6-7
Domesticated animals
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6-8
The professor explains two ways to protect the environment from tourists.
First, tourists should walk on trails only so that they are segregated from natural environments.
Second, the number of tourists should be limited and each group should be accompanied by a guide.
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6-9
Individual animals perform activities to bring benefits to the whole group. This is called social cooperation. The professor explains two examples.
First, some deer watch for predators while other deer feed on foods. They take turns so that each have some time for feeding.
Second, when a bee finds a food source, it goes back to the nest and performs a special dancing indicating others the direction and the distance to the food source.
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6-10
The professor explains two particular behaviors of monkeys living in the rain forests.
First, monkeys hunt for foods individually instead of a group.
Second, while hunting, monkeys emit special sounds, so that they do not encounter other monkeys and they can avoid unnecessary fighting with others.
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6-11
The professor explains mixture flying birds. Two birds fly together. One is watching for predators, while the other looks for foods. Chichi and Woodie birds are such examples.
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6-12
The professor explains two examples of human memories.
First, a person drove away from his house. In a few minutes, he forgot where he was going to.
Second, a person added water in a coffee maker. Then, a telephone call interrupted. He though he started the coffee maker, but he actually forgot to press the start button.
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6-13
The professor explains two type of sounds meerkats make.
First, when a bird attacks meerkats, they make one sound to alert others to escape in the ground.
Second, when a snake intrudes into their nest, they make another sound to intimidate the snake.
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6-14
The professor states that female animas with children are more brave than those who do not have children. He explains the result of an experiment to support this argument. Two jars containing foods one with a lid and the other without a lid were placed in front of two mice, one with children and the other without children. The one with babies entered both jars, while the mouse without children only entered the open jar. This experiment proves that animals with children are more brave than those without children.
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6-15
Same as 6-15
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6-16
Some birds fly in a flock, so that one bird watches for predators, while others look for foods. Chi-chi birds and woodpeckers fly in a flock. One of them is a guard watching for any approaching predators, while other birds search for foods.
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6-17
Companies use two types of slogans in advertisements.
First, they use company’s slogan to promote positive images of the company, so that consumers assume all product of this company are good.
Second, they use a slogan of specific product. They advertise special feathers of the product, so that consumers are attracted to the specific product.
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6-18 Pass.
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6-19
The professor explains two traits of marine animals to help them stay submerged at a certain water depth.
First, sharks have fins to give a certain lift, so that sharks can maintain the same water depth.
Second, a pike has bladders containing air. These provide buoyancy to stay at a constant water depth.

Spell: buoy, buoy, buoyancy, buoyancy, buoy,
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6-20
The professor explains two benefits of eco-tourism.
First, those participate in an eco-tour stay away from cars or busses. Instead, they walk not to pollute the environment.
Second, they try to repair damaged environment. For example, they plant trees to restore the forest.
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6-21
The professor explains how negative logs would affect negatively the performance of companies.
First, a dark logo of a tooth paste gives consumers an negative image that the use of the toothpaste will make their teeth darker.
Second, an old-fashioned logo may give an impression that the product is also outdated and behind the recent trend.
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6-22
The professor explains two effects of the railroads in America.
First, thanks to the railroads, producers were able to sell their products across the nation. Take a watch maker as an example. Before the railroads were available, the company was able to sell their watches to only limited number of cities. After the expansion of the railroads, their market place expanded nationwide.
Second, tanks to the railroads, many factories were built where natural resources were not available. For example, as coals can be transported to any places, people were able to build factories at more locations.
-----------------------------------------
6-23
The professor explains two insects that can breathe under the water.
A water scorpion, for example, has a breathing tube like a snorkel that allows it to breathe while half of the body is under water for searching foods.
A diving beetle retains air in the hind legs when diving into the water. In the water, it breathes out of this air trapped in the hind legs.

Spell: beetle, beetle, beetle
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6-24
The professor explains two ways ants bring water into their nest.
First, each ant carries a droplet of water. As the number of ants of a nest is significant, they can collect a fair amount of water. However, it is labor and time intensive activity.
Second, they place a water trapping object like a feather outside the nest during the night to absorb water. In the next morning, they bring in the feather into the nest.
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6-25
When facing a problem, people are often able to resolve the problem by looking at the issue from other perspectives. This is called lateral view. The professor uses one example of his brother who owns and manages a hotel. He received complaints that the elevator is too slow. He consulted the manufacturer, but the modification to the elevator was too expensive. One of his employees suggested installing a TV so that gusts would not feel the waiting time is too long.
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6-26
The professor explains two ways herbivores digest grasses.
The first is mechanical method. Take rabbits for example. They use front teeth to break grasses into smaller pieces to aid the digestion.
The second is chemical method. Cows for example use acid in stomach to digest grasses into absorbable nutrients.
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6-27
The professor explains two negative impacts of human interventions on the underwater species.
First, building canals connecting sea water and fresh water systems will negatively impact the ecological balance. Specifically, new species from the sea intrude into the fresh water system and may significantly reduce the fresh water species.
Second, cutting trees would affect the temperature of the water, thus negatively affect the underwater ecology. Specifically, changes in water temperatures would affect the oxygen content of the water, thus affecting the lives of underwater species.


Spell: species, species, species
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6-28
The professor explains two methods to keep a society stable.
The first method is called unification. Those who share the same jobs, interests, and hobbies get together and form groups.
The second method is called collaboration. Those who have different jobs and functions must depend on one another in order to maintain a society. A society is only stable when each member assists other members.
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6-29
The professor explains two ways for archeologists to decide where to dig to find ancient sites.
First, they look for a particular feature of the landscape. For example, in New Zealand, ancient people lived in high elevations such as hills, so archeologists look for hills as potential archeological sites.
Second, they look for a particular plant. For example, ancient people planted banana nut trees and the trees often continue to grow in the area. So, archeologists dig where the banana nut trees are growing.

Spell: New Zealand, New Zealand
---------------------------------
6-30
The professor explains two types of social groups, dependent and independent group.
First, in a dependent social group, everyone depends on each other. Take elephants for example. They always help one another. When one gets sick, other members help the sick by caring and providing foods.
Second, in an independent social group, each member is independent of others. Take fish for example, they do form a school, but each member is not dependent on others.
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6-31
The professor claims that female animals with babies are more brave then those without babies. He proved this by an experiment.
Two jars containing food were prepared. One jar had a lid, so that one cannot see inside, while the second jar had no lid, so one can see the food inside. Two female mice, one with babies and the other without were tested. One with babies entered both jars, but the other mouse without babies only entered the jar without a lid. This proves that mothers take more risks than non mothers.
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6-32
The professor explains two ways people fill in a memory gap.
First, people fill in an assumed or wrong information in a memory gap. For example, a person witnessed an car accident claims that the driver was talking on the phone or he did not use the direction signal, although these are not true.
Second, people fill in a misguided information in a memory gap. For example, a person memorizes a telephone number correctly initially. However, after hearing another number from his friend, he memorizes a wrong mumber.
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6-33
Negative impact on fish by humans
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6-34
Two methods to make a society stable.
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6-35
Mothers are more brave.
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6-36
The professor explains two examples of how packaging improved sales of products.
First, a new packaging material increased the sale. Take milk packaging for example. Plastic containers replaced many glass bottles. Plastic containers are easier to carry and as a result the sale of milk improved.
Second, a new packaging design increased the sale. The package size of milk used to be bigger than that of juice, so more people bought juice. Then, a milk producer designed a smaller package for milk, which boosted the sale of milk.
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6-37
Memory
She drove out for a destination. After a few minutes, she realized that she forgot something at home.
She added water to a coffee maker, interrupted by a telephone call, expected the coffee is ready, actually forgot to press the start button.
-----------------------
6-38
The professor explains factors to be considered for selecting optimum sites for observatories.
First, an ideal site for an observatory should be away from light sources.
Second, the atmosphere should be dry. A high humidity obscures the lens of telescopes.
In sum, a desert away from cities is the ideal location for observatories.
---------------------------------
6-39
Ecotourism
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6-40
The professor explains two ways fish can ascend in the water.
First, fish inflates a bladder by injecting more oxygen into the bladder. By inflating the bladder, the overall density of fish decreases, thus increasing the buoyancy.
Second, some fish use fins to ascend in the water. Take sharks and rays for example. They use fins like airplanes glide up in the water.

Bladder 浮き袋、膀胱
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6-41
Requirements for observatories.
Being way from city lights
Dry atmosphere
Sunny everyday.
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6-42
Negative effects of advertisements on the environment
Advertisement of kitchen papers. More consumption of papers negatively affects the environment.
Billboards negatively affect the environment and the natural beauty.
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6-43
Factors to be considered to select an archeological digging site.
Land feature such as hills
Particular plant
----------------------------------
これで約80問やったので、Task 6の練習を終了します。

SpeakingのTask4, Task6は、非常に難しいです。
いくら練習しても本番でうまくいくとは限りません。
高度のリスニングの力、メモを上手にとる能力、要点をまとめる能力、話す能力、総合的な英語力が試されます。

Task4+ Task6 で4点もらえる人は相当な英語の使い手と思って間違いありません。

今後とも定期的に今回のようなTask4+ Task6 の集中訓練をやっていきたいと思います。



[タグ未指定]
[ 2013/01/18 11:27 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(11)
こんにちわ、
Toefl speakingがすごく苦手です。
特にListeningをまとめるのに苦労します。このまとめ作業の工夫や練習方法はどのようなことを行っていますか?参考までに教えていただきたいですm(__)m
[ 2013/01/18 22:06 ] [ 編集 ]
WPM
Speakingの対策なのですが、Andyさんは1分間に何語ぐらい話すような感じなのでしょうか?大体、100~120ぐらいを想定してスクリプトを作っているのでしょうか?それとも、もっと140語ぐらいの感じで多めに話したほうが高得点が出るとかのアドバイスをお願いします。
[ 2013/01/19 11:55 ] [ 編集 ]
Azuさん
Azuさん、こんにちわ。
> Toefl speakingがすごく苦手です。
同感です。日本人の90%の人はSで得点できなくて苦労していると思います。

> 特にListeningをまとめるのに苦労します。このまとめ作業の工夫や練習方法はどのようなことを行っていますか?
確かに、まとめるのが本当に難しいです。Task 4 Task 6で、私もいつもうまくまとめられません。

Usherの本のまとめ方がすばらしいです。自分の目標です。

数をこなして慣れるのが一番の対策だと思います。私の推薦する韓流本を2,3冊買って練習することをお勧めします。

[ 2013/01/19 18:06 ] [ 編集 ]
keitaroさん
keitaroさん,こんにちわ。

60秒で110ワード前後ではないかと思います。早く喋ろうという努力はしていません。
それより、以下に内容をうまくまとめられるかが勝負だと思います。

最近の学習記録のTask4+6のスクリプトは、60秒を全く意識していません。あくまでも、題材に慣れるために練習しています。本番で同様な題材が出たら良いなーと思って練習しています。たぶん読みあげたら30秒以下で終わるスクリプトが多いと思います。
[ 2013/01/19 18:21 ] [ 編集 ]
コメント返して頂きありがとうございますm(__)m
お勧めのUSHERと韓流本?検索してもTOEFLの練習本らしきものがないんですが、どんなものですか?
詳しく教えて頂けると助かりますm(__)m
[ 2013/01/24 00:04 ] [ 編集 ]
>Azuさん
http://andymina.blog136.fc2.com/blog-category-13.html
のページにまとまって乗ってます。
買い方も時々書いてくださっているので
目を通しておくといいですよ。
僕はandyさんのおすすめに従って

L,R Toefl map advanced
S,W HACKERS ACTUAL TEST

を購入しました。
今LとRを勉強し始めてます。
[ 2013/01/24 21:15 ] [ 編集 ]
Writing
Andyさん

いつもお世話になっております。Speaking教材のご紹介でお世話になったfumiです。

今はHackersとUshersを購入し、まずHackersの方に手を付けております。
ちなみにWritingの方はHackersの教材は有益でしょうか。

当方現在、24から27点の間で推移しており、少なくとも27点以上で安定させたいと考えています。低いときの内訳では基本的にIndependentの方がFairになってしまっています。語数は350字程度書いているのですが、表現の稚拙さ等そのあたりが起因して減点されていることも考えられますでしょうか。


[ 2013/01/25 00:01 ] [ 編集 ]
Azuさん、ericさん
すみません。
ちょっと忙しくなって、プログを留守にしていました。

ericさん、私に代わってAzuさんの質問に答えていただき感謝です。

Azuさん、韓流本でがんばってください。
[ 2013/01/25 00:04 ] [ 編集 ]
fumiさん
Hackers writing も超お勧めです。テンプレートがとても良いです。

私も、しばらく25点が続きましたが、珠玉の表現集をつくり、本番で暗記した文章を何個か入れるようにしたら28点、29点まで向上しました。

採点者が「この人の英語はできる。」と思わせる表現を入れることが大切と思います。

採点者はひとつの作文の採点に1分もかけないと思いますので、何かしらのインパクトを与える必要があると思います。

600ワード書くのもインパクト、高級な単語を入れるのもインパクト、しゃれた表現をいれるのもインパクトになると思います。

まだ私も作文は苦手です。30点の作文が書けていません。もっと試行錯誤が必要、練習が必要と思っています。
[ 2013/01/25 00:17 ] [ 編集 ]
ANDYさんERICさん
わかりやすく教えて頂いてありがとうございます!
さっそく目を通して見ます^ - ^!
[ 2013/01/25 17:13 ] [ 編集 ]
Andyさん
Andyさん

早速のご連絡ありがとうございます。

>採点者が「この人の英語はできる。」と思わせる表現を入れることが大切
>と思います。

なるほど。採点者も何人もの採点をやっているため、インパクトが大事ということでしょうか笑。私はAndyさんを参考に高級な表現でインパクトを与えることを目標とし、次回は挑戦しようと思います。

また、HackersのWriting、購入を検討いたします。

今後ともよろしくお願いいたします。


[ 2013/01/26 01:34 ] [ 編集 ]
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Andy

Author:Andy
プロフィール:

TOEIC 990点
英検1級合格二次試験100点(優秀賞)
TOEFL iBT 119点(2015年7月11日、2年間有効)

名前:Andy
年齢:59歳
学歴:University of Missouri at Rolla 工学部原子力工学科卒業
職業:技術系の通訳を30年以上やっています。

仕事柄、欧米人と仕事をすることが多く、Andyというニックネームを使っています。
北陸の田舎に住んでいます。毎週、北陸新幹線にお世話になっています。
コシヒカリを食べて育った純粋な日本人です。
韓国語、中国語は全くできません。

毎月TOEFLを受験しています。
ソラシティ、武蔵小杉、テンプル大学麻布校3階が好きな会場です。

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