Actual test speaking 1
Test 13
The professor explains two features when a company develops a new product.
First, the product should be easy to use. Take a ketchup glass bottle, for example. Often ketchup won’t come out or a large amount comes out at once. So the company developed a squeezable plastic bottle. Now a right amount of ketchup comes out.
Second, the product should be attractive to consumers. Take a cookie container, for example. A company developed a tin box with beautiful paintings on it. Customers love this because they can use the box as a decoration after eating cookies.

Ketchup would come out in too great an amount.
Take cookie container as an example.
This makes customers more likely to buy the products in the first place since they can get another use out of them.
Test 14
The professor explains two types of defenses used by animals.
The first is physical defense. Take walking sticks for example. They blend in tree branches so that predators cannot locate them. Grasshoppers detach their legs to escape from predators.
The second is chemical defenses. Stinkbugs release bad smell substance to deter predators. Bees and hornets have stingers to inject toxin to predators.
These examples demonstrate defenses by animals.

Predators think of insects as tasty treats.
Insect physical defenses come in a variety of forms.
Awful-smelling chemicals, awful, awful, awful, awful, awful
The smell is so intense that it drives predators away, thereby saving the stinkbug’s life.
Typing practice: awful, awful, away, away, away, awful
Environmental problems are akin to drug trafficking: individuals have neither the power nor the resources to address the problems.
Test 15
The professor explains two animals that help keep soil healthy.
First, earth worms eat soil, grind organic matters, and release them as nutrients into soil. They also release sticky material to make soil compact. Furthermore, they create gaps in soil for air and water retention.
Second, elephants eat a large amount of vegetation and release about 100 kg per day of manure that give nutrients such as nitrogen into soil and improve the soil productivity.

Spell: Retention, retention, retention, retention, retention, retention, attention,
Test 16
The professor explains two kinds of defenses used by animals.
The first is active defenses. Those animals having claws, teeth, and horns fight against predators. They do not have to run away from predators. For example, bulls and rhinos have horns, and cats, wolves, and bears have claws and sharp teeth to fight against predators.
The second is passive defenses. Deer and antelopes flee at fast speed when faced with a predator. Grass snakes and possums play dead. When they spot a predator, they roll over and play like they are dead. Once the predator departs, they rise and escape.

Spell: rhinoceros, rhinoceros, rhinoceros, rhinoceros, rhinoceros, rhinoceros, opossum, opossum, opossum, opossum,フクロネズミ
Those animals stand their ground and fight. 一歩も引かず戦う
I intend to stand my ground. 譲歩するつもりはありません。
They flee at the first sight of danger.
Test 17
The professor explains two countermeasures farmers use to prevent the soil erosion.
First, farmers plant crops with deep root systems. Deep roots anchor the soil and prevent the soil from being blown away by strong winds. Tomato and broccoli are good examples.
Second, farmers establish various barriers such as line of trees to block winds. Mulch and plastic sheets are used to cover the top surface of the soil. Stone walls and ditches are used to control the water erosion of the soil.
These examples demonstrate effective soil erosion prevention measures.

Mulch  木くずなどで土地の表面を覆うこと
Spell: erosion, erosion, erosion, erosion, erosion
Test 18
The professor explains two adaptations of animals living in mountain areas.
First, animals have thick fur to withstand the cold climate and strong winds. Take mountain goats for example. They grow thick fur during winter and shed it during summer.
Second, animals have specialized legs and hooves. For example, big horn sheep have large hooves and strong legs, so that they can move easily in rocky mountain surfaces without slipping or falling.
These examples demonstrate adaptations of animals living in high altitudes.

Hoof ひずめ、hooves
They must be able to negotiate the rocky landscape.
The thick fur protect it from the elements such as snow and wind.

[ 2013/01/17 16:30 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(0)




TOEIC 990点
TOEFL iBT 119点

学歴:University of Missouri at Rolla 工学部原子力工学科卒業



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