Actual test speaking 1

Test 6
The professor explains two animals that perform group feeding.
First, lions are predators and form a group to attack a prey. They corner a prey, kill it and eat it together.
Second, deer is a prey and they live together to eat plants. While some deer watch predators, other deer eat plants. Then they rotate the roles, so that everyone can have chances of eating.

Lions live in prides. 群れ
Many preys are faster than lions, so they can elude a single lion.
Elude the press 報道陣をかわす、から逃げる
This enables each deer to spend an optimal amount of time feeding while only having to be on guard for a short time.
Test 7
The professor explains two plants that have aerial roots, that is, roots above ground.

First, mangrove trees grow in coastal areas and they have aerial roots. There are two functions of the aerial roots. One is to stay away from salinity of sea water, and the other being able to absorb nutrients by taking gas from air.
Second, maze is a kind of corn plant which has both normal underground roots and additional aerial roots called brace roots. Maze has a thin and tall stem loaded with corn, so the brace roots provide support to the long stem.

Fully laden car (loaded car)
Laden with corn コーンの荷物を積んだ
Test 8
The professor explains two kinds of adaptations by Arctic animals.
First, animals have protective layers to keep them warm. Take bears for example. They have two layers of protection, one is fat and the other being fur to protect them from cold climate. Birds have fat and feathers to protect them from coldness.
Second, animals have special body traits to protect them from cold temperatures. Fox and hare have small round bodies with short legs. The small body helps protect critical internal organs and shorter legs help reduce the heat loss due to their smaller surface area.

The fat and fur act like insulation as they keep out the cold while retaining the heat the body generates.
Keep out the cold 寒さを遮る
Keep out dusts
Keep out drafts
Keep out the sun 遮る
It grows thick feathers, even on its extremities.
Test 9
When a company is in financial troubles, the professor explains two actions that can be taken to reduce costs and improve sales.
First, the company can perform a downsizing, which is to reduce the number of employees or eliminating some divisions. This way, the company may be able to reduce costs and become profitable again.
Second, the company can offer discounts on its products and services. As the price becomes lower, customers may start buying the product again and the company can regain a higher sales volume. As the original price includes a high markup, the discount will not result in a loss and the company can maintain a small profit by increasing the sales volume.

Downsizing has become the go-to strategy of many companies upon suffering financial difficulties.
Several workers at each department are let go. 解雇される
Most companies give their products high markups over the basic production. 利幅、値上げ
Test 10
The professor explains two eye positions of birds and their advantages.

First, predator birds such as hawks and falcons have their eyes in the front of heads. They can see far distance and have better depth perception. This helps them to locate a prey from high in the air and dive to the prey easily.

Second, prey birds have eyes on the sides of the heads. This way, they can see predators coming from the sides or from behind. However, their view to the front is poor, and they compensate for this by moving their heads.

Test 11
The professor explains two animal species taking advantages of wet lands.

First, sharks come to wetlands to lay eggs, so that baby sharks can feed and grow without being attacked by predators of open oceans.

Second, sandpipers come to wetlands to feed and rest. They migrate long distance every season. Wetlands provide them with foods such as insects and worms and also resting places prior to moving to the next destinations.

Invertebrate 無脊椎動物
Vertebrate 脊椎動物
Wet lands protect young sharks from the dangers that lurk in the open ocean. Lurk in ~に潜む
Once they are more mature, they head out to the ocean.
Once full and rested, they continue with the next stage of their journey.
Continue with the next stage of the project
Test 12
The professor explains two examples of mutualism between ants and trees.
First, acacia ants and acacia trees. The trees provide nectar to ants, while the ants provide soldiers to protect trees from other enemy insects. Ants also eat other plants nearby, so that trees can receive more sun light.
Second, lemon ants and Duroia hirsute trees. The ants release acid to kill all other plants, resulting in a large area of only this plant. This is called devil’s garden. In return, the trees provide shelter and foods to the ants.

Herbivores herbivores herbivores vores herbivores
Carnivores carnivores carnivores vores carnivores スペルが難しい

[ 2013/01/16 11:29 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(0)




TOEIC 990点
TOEFL iBT 119点

学歴:University of Missouri at Rolla 工学部原子力工学科卒業



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