Usher speaking


The professor explains two reasons for the success of the Roman Empire.
First, they had far more advanced technologies than others. Take the use of concrete, for example. This made possible to construct arches and large structures like bridges connecting all roads leading to Rome.
Second, they had the underground water systems called aqueducts. They provided the Romans with the constant supply of uncontaminated water, which was protected from enemies.
These examples explain two reasons for the success of the Roman Empire.

Aqueducts 水路
Test 1
The professor explains how animals can adapt to high altitudes by giving two examples.
First, mountain goats have two-layer fur coat to protect from cold temperature and strong winds. They shed the outer layer during summer. They also have strong front legs to aid climbing steep slopes.
Second, big horn sheep has cloven hoof or separated foot that help them live in steep cliffs to escape from predators. In addition, their feet have soft and spongy structure which enables them to live on slippery surfaces of mountain cliffs.
These examples demonstrate how animals survive in high altitudes.

Hoof ひづめ
Cloven hoof割れたひづめ
Forelimbs 前足
Test 2
The professor explains how play behaviors help young animals survive in the wild by giving two examples.
First, a baby bird practices picking up a feather over and over again, so that they can prey on foods in the future when it becomes an adult.
Second, a baby monkey practice moving from one tree to another, so that they can build up muscle and speed to be able to move quickly and possibly escape from predators.
These are good examples of how baby animals’ play behaviors help their survival in the future.

Nestlings ひな
Inconspicuously 眼にははっきり見えないが、目立たないが
This motion accustoms monkeys to ~ 慣れさせる
Test 3
The professor explains two types of feathers of loons and their functions.
First, contour feathers are outer layer feathers, and they are tightly packed and coated with special oil, so they never get wet and lose body temperature by evaporation.
Second, down feathers between the skin and contour feathers are like cotton, containing a lot of air inside and function as insulating material to protect from cold temperatures. They also aid loons to float in the water.

Plumage 羽根
Preventing water from seeping through
But the structure does not do justice to its significant benefits. 構造だけではその良さを十分説明できない。
We should do justice to his effort 彼の努力を正当に評価するべきである。
Buoyancy 浮力buoyancy buoy ブイ
Test 4
The professor explains how animals cooperate to defend against predators by giving two examples.
First, muskoxen form a line against a single predator to intimidate. Against multiple predators, males form a circle facing enemies with babies and females inside the circle.
Second, when a mocking bird spots a fox, it alerts other birds and intimidate the fox. In the meantime, other birds attack the fox from behind. The mocking birds have other ways of offending off predators as well.

Muskoxen ジャコウウシ
Bovines ウシ科の動物
To increase survivability and the chances of warding off, 追い払う
Ward off colds, ward off creditors,
The goal of mobbing is to fend off the predator.
While the fox is preoccupied, 気を取られている間に
Defecating ウンチを落とす
Test 5
The professor explains two examples of group huntings.

First, several lions encircle a herd of zebras and attack the one closest to them. As lions do not have stamina, they try to hunt quickly.
Second, honey guide bees are too weak to break a bee hive, while badgers cannot see well. Honey guide bees lead a badger to a honey hive. The badger breaks the bee hive and eat honeycomb and the birds eat the remaining. This is called mutualism, meaning two different species help each other.

Test 6
The professor explains two ways to make sculptures, subtractive and additive sculpturing.

Subtractive sculptures are made by chipping away solid materials such as woods and marbles. This is more difficult process, because once pieces are chipped away, it is not possible to put them back. Pieta by Michelangelo is a famous example of subtractive sculpting.
Additive sculptures are made by molding or shaping softer materials such as cement and clay. Artists have more freedom, because the shape can be changeable. A famous example is LOVE by Robert Indiana.

Sculptures come in a variety of forms.
This exemplified by Greek and Roman statues.
Modern art installation
Test 7
The professor explains why animals change fur color by using two examples.
Arctic foxes change their fur color to white during winter and to brown during summer to be able to approach preys without being noticed.
Snow shoe hares change their fur color to hide from foxes, but unlike foxes, white fur grows from different locations of the skin and they are hollow and function as heat insulator.

Biochrome 生体色素
Test 8
The professor explains two advantages of subsurface locomotion, that is, swimming in the sand. He uses a lizard called sandfish as an example.
First, Sandfish can control its body temperatures by submerging into the sand. The hotter the temperature, the deeper they dive into the ground.
Second, they can easily catch preys. In the desert, as there are no high vantage points in the desert, they cannot use eyes to find insects. Instead, they hide under the ground, sense vibrations from insect, and catch them.

This impediment becomes even worse when your prey is tiny insects which are hard to notice in the first place.
Test 9
The professor explains the intelligence of ants by giving two food harvesting techniques.
First, worker ants, when they find a food source, they release pheromone so that other ants can locate it. If the food is found by another species, they release another kind of pheromone to confuse them or call warrior ants to fight with them.
Second, ants place small stones around entrances of rival colonies. This gives two advantages. While rivals are fixing the entrances, ants can secure more foods, and also they can avoid fighting with rivals.

Test 10
The professor explains two reasons why bats hang upside down.
First, bats hide themselves from predators. During day, bats sleep in a secluded area such as caves, so that predators cannot reach them.
Second, they hang to take off easily. Bats cannot take off from the ground because their front legs are too weak. Being hang upside down, they are ready to fly and escape from predators.

Bats cannot take off from the ground because wings do not produce enough lift to launch them from a dead stop.
Task 4 & 6は本当に素晴らしいテストだと思う。
Task 4 & 6にしっかり対応できる人はかなりの英語の達人と思って間違いない。

[ 2013/01/13 10:19 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(0)



TOEIC 990点
TOEFL iBT 119点 (2017/11/4)

学歴:University of Missouri at Rolla 工学部原子力工学科卒業


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