TOEFL100点以上を目指す社会人の方のための集中勉強会のご案内です。

一回の受講で、100点までの道のりが明確に見えるようになりますので、安心してその後の勉強を実施することができます。

TOEFL学習記録133

Hackers Speaking Actual Test
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TOEFL Speakingの難関Task6の練習に入る。最初に、あの有名なHackersの本から。出てくる英語の表現も勉強しながらじっくり攻めていきたい。全体では70問位を目標に練習する予定。
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Practice test
The professor explains the human immune system by using two examples.
First, when a mosquito bites a human body, the body releases histamine to make the skin swell to prevent poison from entering the body.
Second, when foreign materials intrude into our nasal cavity, it sends a signal to the brain to eject the substance out of the body by sneezing,
These examples demonstrate the human immune system.
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Test 1
The professor explains senses used for animal migration by using two examples.
First, ducks use the sense of sight. They look at the stars to know which direction points north. During day, they may deviate from the correct direction, but during night they can reorient by checking the stars.
Second, salmons use the sense of smell to migrate to a destination stream. They remember the scent of the destination, and when they arrive at a fork (when they must chose one route out of two or more streams), they know which way they should go.
These examples demonstrate senses used for animal migration.

Which direction points north
What aids the salmon in the journey
When they encounter a fork,
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Test 2
The professor explains human thermal regulation by using two examples.
First, physiological regulation. When exposed to cold temperatures, our body automatically sends a signal to muscle to shiver to generate heat.
Second, behavioral regulation. When exposed to hot temperatures, we consciously take evasive actions such as using a fan, going to shades, and drinking water, because we know these actions will help reduce our body temperatures.
These examples demonstrate two methods of human thermal regulation.

As we touched on before,
This triggers a shiver,
We humans want to take matters into our own hands.
When it is too hot out,
We know what will lower our body temperature. We act upon that knowledge.
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Test 3
The professor explains two features of anti-art.
First, the artists used ordinary common objects and items. A famous anti-artist used a urinal upside down.
Second, they used streets to display their artistic works, so that the public have access to them. For example, another famous anti-artist displayed meter pops in the streets, which are parking meters with lollipop heads.
These examples demonstrate two features of anti-art.

Art in the early 20the century had fallen under the purview of the middle and upper classes.
The mid-20th century saw a shift.
Common people want to bring the art to their doorstep.
For one thing, artists who ushered in this new definition of art had no desire to use traditional tools and mediums.
I proffered my hand. 差し出す
These artists had little interest in venues like museums, usually set aside for the upper class.
little more than a public urinal upside down
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Test 4
The professor explains changes created by the industrial revolution by using two examples.
First, everyday goods were made in factories instead of at home. Steam engines facilitated producing goods in large quantity and lower costs, so that making goods at individual homes were no longer necessary.
Second, workers migrated to cities where they can find jobs at factories. As a result, big cities with a large population of workers were developed.
These examples demonstrate how the industrial revolution transformed society.

We will discuss how the industrial revolution transformed society.
Post-industrial society saw the rise of modern cities.
People began to flock to these new cities.
This cycle of prosperity was responsible for turning cities into the sprawling (広大な) metropolises we see today.
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Test 5
The professor explains how camera angles affect the perception of viewers by giving two examples.
First, the low angle shot creates impressions of power and dominance. For example, Queen Victoria in a British film was depicted as a string person with dignity.
Second the high angle shot establishes images of weakness and solicits sympathy among viewers. For example, a person left in the middle of a dessert and his weakness can be effectively depicted by the high angle shots.
These two examples demonstrate camera angles in filmmaking.

An imposing royal figure
The further away, the more pathetic and helpless the character appears.
When the camera pans away from him, looking down on him in the endless expanse of desert『終わりのない広がり』, his helplessness is further emphasized to the audience.
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Test 6
The professor explains protective adaptations of animals by giving two examples.
First, he describes offensive adaptation. The quills of porcupines are an offensive trait. They look so intimidating and painful, predators are afraid of being close to the porcupines.
Second, he describes defensive adaptation. The shells of turtles are a defensive trait. When attacked by a predator, the turtle retracts all legs and head inside the shell. The shells of turtles are so hard that predators cannot crack the shell.
These examples demonstrate protective adaptations of animals.

Menacing-looking quills 脅威的な
These traits tend to manifest in one of two forms of protective adaptation.
Manifest in two forms 二つの形で表れる
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Test 7
The professor explains how loons’ feathers to protect them from cold temperatures by giving two examples.
First, down feathers. These thick and soft inner feathers function as insulation to protect loons from cold water. However, it may get soaked with water.
Second, contour feathers. These feathers are tightly packed outer layer feathers and function as repelling water to keep the inner down feathers dry. Oil is secreted to make the contour feathers more repellent to water.

These examples demonstrate how loons’ feathers protect them from cold temperatures.

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Test 8
The professor explains mutualism, a relation mutually beneficial to both organisms by giving two examples.

First, a plant when attacked by spider mites releases chemical odor to attract ladybugs. The ladybugs eat the spider mites.
Second, acacia trees release sugar nectar to attract ants, while ants fend off beetles and other predators of acacia trees.

These are good examples of mutualism between plants and insects.
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Test 9
The professor explains types of communities by giving two examples.

First, communities of interest. Web designers can organize a conference where they can share their expertise and knowledge, or they can open up a web site to share the recent trend of the web design. By sharing information among members, the community becomes stronger.
Second, communalities of action. A local organization which issues a monthly newsletter have individuals to perform various functions such as writers, editors, distributers, and advertisers. By the division of labor, the community becomes stronger.
These are good examples of different types of communities.

First off, we have communities of interest.
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Test 10

The professor explains two types of advertising techniques to attract different types of people.
First, for those who are visually oriented consumers, advertisers may create an ad including visually exciting images. For example, an ad for a resort hotel may include scenes of sun setting or a couple relaxing at the beach.
Second, for those who are verbally oriented, advertisers may use enticing words. The same ad for the resort hotel may include a stimulating and tantalizing phrase like “Spend a weekend at this paradise.”
These are good examples of advertising techniques.

Pamper guest at the resort もてなす、甘やかす
Compel and tickle the ears. 耳を揺り動かす、くすぐる
Compel the soul of people 魂を強く揺り動かす
Let real you come out at our beach resort.
Tantalizing and exciting 興味をそそる
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Test 11
The professor explains two reasons why birds consume dirt.
First, dirt is used for digestion. For example, pigeons have no teeth, so they eat coarse soil to break seeds and other hard foods into small pieces in their stomach.
Second, dirt is used to protect against toxic substances. For instance, tropical parrots eat fine soil to coat the surface of their stomach, which absorb and prevents toxic substances of foods from entering their systems.
These examples demonstrate two reasons why birds consume dirt.

Take pigeons for example.
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Test 12
The professor explains two ways carnivorous plants catch insects.
First, the professor explains active trapping. Take Venice flytrap plants for example. They release sweet nectar to attract insects. Once an insect lands on a leave, it suddenly closes and digests it slowly.
Second, the professor explains passive trapping. Take Drosera plants, for example, which secrete sticky material on their leaves and when an insect lands on a leave, it gets stuck. Then, the plant wraps around it and slowly digests it.
These examples demonstrate how carnivorous plants catch insects..

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[ 2013/01/12 11:01 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(2)
Usher
Andyさんのを参考にして、テンプレートをまとめているとどうしても1と2がネックになるので、Usher Speakingの24題をワードに打ち込んで、もっとまとめられないかどうか思案中です。

おそらく、24もないと思います。Integration of knowledge 「知識の統合」と自分が英語のWritingの授業中につけた造語ですが、Speaking 能力をアップさせる近道だと自分は思っています。

例えば、「人」「場所」 そんな大きな枠でとらえるといいですよね。

いつもいつもすばらしいブログをありがとうございます。

自分もがんばります。
[ 2013/01/12 21:00 ] [ 編集 ]
keitaroさん
お元気ですか。

生徒さんWSDCご出場本当におめでとうございます。

先生のご指導の賜物と思います。

先生のどうしたら生徒の英語が向上するかをいつも工夫しておられる姿に感銘を受けます。

このUsherの本のすごいところは、12個のUniversal Answersを暗記すると、ほとんどすべての問題に対応できると提唱しています。少なくとも本番で似たような問題が出たら暗記した文章が使えますので、有利です。
Task1とTask2で合計24個ありますので、これを完璧に暗記したら、すごい武器になると思います。この作業、言うは易し行うは難しですが、やった人は間違いなく得点アップと思います。

「人」「場所」 などで分別して、24の数を少し減らすことも可能と思います。

コメント有難うございました。
[ 2013/01/12 21:40 ] [ 編集 ]
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Andy

Author:Andy
プロフィール:

TOEIC 990点
英検1級合格二次試験100点(優秀賞)
TOEFL iBT 119点(2015年7月11日、2年間有効)

名前:Andy
年齢:59歳
学歴:University of Missouri at Rolla 工学部原子力工学科卒業
職業:技術系の通訳を30年以上やっています。

仕事柄、欧米人と仕事をすることが多く、Andyというニックネームを使っています。
北陸の田舎に住んでいます。毎週、北陸新幹線にお世話になっています。
コシヒカリを食べて育った純粋な日本人です。
韓国語、中国語は全くできません。

毎月TOEFLを受験しています。
ソラシティ、武蔵小杉、テンプル大学麻布校3階が好きな会場です。

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