According to the reading, teachers should use study materials which can boost the curiosity of students. This is called interest boosting. The professor uses one example. His wife was a teacher and wanted to teach students about Marie Curie, a famous scientist in nuclear physics. Initially, student did not show interest to this subject. So she showed a movie about Marie, casted by famous movie stars. Then, student got interested in Marie and studied the subject intensively. This is a good example of interest boosting.
Operant conditioning (or instrumental conditioning) is a type of learning in which an individual's behavior is modified by its consequences.

According to the reading, when students misbehave, teachers can modify this behavior by either negative or positive reinforcements. This is called operant conditioning. The professor uses one example.

His sister was a teacher. One of her students, Jay, did not raise his hand before asking questions and disrupted the class. The teacher, during recess, said to Jay “Your questions are great but please raise your hand before asking questions”. Jay was very happy to hear this comment and from that point he always raised his hand before questioning. This is a good example of operant conditioning.
Optimal foraging theory is an idea in ecology based on the study of foraging behaviour and states that organisms forage in such a way as to maximize their net energy intake per unit time.

According to the reading, animals try to maximize the amount of prey while minimizing the energy used for foraging. This is called optimum foraging. The professor uses one example.
A sea bird preys on shellfish. First, the bird tries to catch the largest shellfish in the water. Second, the bird selects an optimum flying height required for dropping and breaking the shell. If too high, he loses energy, while if too low the shell would not break. This is a good example of optimum foraging.
The planning fallacy is a tendency for people and organizations to underestimate how long they will need to complete a task, even when they have experience of similar tasks over-running.

According to the reading, some people underestimate how long it will take to complete a task, even though they previously did the same mistake on the similar task. This is called planning fallacy. The professor uses his own experience.
When he was s student, he had to write a ten page report. He though this was an easy task and waited until the last day. He borrowed some books from the library, but could not make ten page report. He needed more books to complete the report, but the library was already closed. He ended up with being late for the due date and received a poor grading on the report. This is a good example of planning fallacy.
According to the reading, our behaviors have either negative or positive effects on out personal relationships. The professor uses his own experience.
He moved to a new neighborhood and was invited to a party. He met a person who shares the same hobbies and he talked with this person for a long time. Eventually they become close friends. In contrast, he met another person at his garden, but he had a headache on that day and did not talk with the person friendly and rejected an invitation to his house for coffee. They never developed a close relation. This is a good example of negative and positive effects.
According to the reading, some animals can control the number of members in a group depending on situations. This is called self-maintaining ability. The professor uses one example.
Gorillas form a large group during night to protect themselves from enemies, while during day they separate into several smaller groups to effectively search for foods. This is a good example of self-maintainability of animals.

[ 2013/01/11 10:27 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(0)




TOEIC 990点
TOEFL iBT 119点(2015年7月11日、2年間有効)

学歴:University of Missouri at Rolla 工学部原子力工学科卒業



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