According to the reading, some students are distracted by external stimulus and as a result, cannot concentrate on his study. By removing such stimulus, students can better concentrate on his work. This is called stimulus reduction.
The professor uses one example.
His student Steven was often distracted by birds and trees outside the windows and as a result he failed one exam. The professor changed his seat to a place far from the windows. Then, he was no longer disturbed and performed better in the next exam.
This is a good example of stimulus reduction.
According to the reading, students learn better if he or she selects learning materials rather than teachers selecting materials. This is called student-centered learning. The professor uses one example.
His daughter was learning how to play guitar. First, the teacher selected a song and asked her to demonstrate. She was distracted and this did not go well with her. Then, the teacher asked her to select her own favorite song to demonstrate. She got interested and worked very hard on this song and her skills significantly improved in a short period.
This is a good example of student-centered learning.
According to the reading, in biology there is a rule of thumb that animals living in colder climate tend to be bigger, while those living in warmer areas tend to be smaller. This is called Bergmann’s rule. The professor uses one example.
Sparrows living in warmer areas tend to be smaller than those living in colder climate.
According to the reading, babies before developing speaking skills can communicate with parents using non-verbal means and this communication goes in both directions from infants to parents and vice versa. This is called bi-directional communication. The professor uses one example.
A six month old baby smiled when he wanted be held by parents, cried when he was hungry, and screamed when he wanted his diaper to be changed.
This is a good example of bi-directional communication.
According to the reading, there are two stages of competency in doing some skills, conscious and unconscious competence. The professor explains them.
When he was a beginner in typing, he practiced typing carefully and consciously, so he made few typing mistakes. In contrast, when he became fully confident in typing, he was able to type while doing other activities, but actually made more typing mistakes. These explain the two stages of competency.
According to the reading, some people tend to select information that supports his idea or preference and ignore information that does not support his idea. This is called confirmation bias. The professor uses one example.
One woman really liked a hybrid car and wanted to buy one. Although this car had negative sides such as frequently breaking down, she ignored it and bought the car. In the end, she had to frequently fix the car after purchase.
This is a good example of confirmation bias.
According to the reading, some plants have very unique defense mechanisms. The professor uses an example of poison sumac.
This plant has two stages of defense mechanism.
First, when this plant is harmed, it releases a toxic liquid. Second, other plants in the vicinity also release the toxic substance to protect from predators. This is a good example of a unique defense mechanism of plants.
According to the reading, ergonomic design produces products that bring convenience to users. The professor uses his own experience to explain this.
He used to be working in an office answering calls from clients. He had to reach for a file while holding his phone between his chin and shoulder, which eventually gave him neck ache. His supervisor gave him a hand free phone, which solved his problem.
This is a good example of ergonomic design.
According to the reading, animals issue signals to attract mates and some animals can mimic the signal of another animal to lure it into a trap. This is called false signaling. The professor uses one example.
Every mating season, moth issues a signal to attract mates. Bowler spiders can mimic this signal to lure them into a web to prey.
This is a good example of false signaling.
According to the reading, money comes in various forms. The professor uses two examples to explain them.
First, money comes in the form of coins and bills. When one uses a taxi, one can use bills and coins to pay for the fare.
Second, if the taxi driver agrees, one can pay with agricultural products instead of using coin and bills, although the government does not endorse this kind of payment.
The founder effect is the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population.

According to the reading, when a small number of population moves away from the main population and settles at a new location, the genetic variation tends to lost. This is called founder effect. The professor uses one example of a plant.
This tall plant was abundant in the main island. Some seeds of this plant travelled across the sea and grew on a small island. The height of the plant became shorter than the original size.
This is a good example of the founder effect.
The halo effect or halo error is a cognitive bias in which our judgments of a person’s character can be influenced by our overall impression of him or her.

According to the reading, people tend to judge other persons based on limited or biased information. This is called halo error or halo effect. The professor uses his own experience.

When he was a university student, he looked for a roommate from a list of candidates. He selected a person who was an excellent physics student. He thought those who are good at physics must be neat and tidy person. In reality, this person never cleaned their shared room and his initial impression was completely wrong. This is a good example of halo error.
According to the reading, when we see an image in an advertisement repeatedly, we often connect the image with the product. This is called image advertising. The professor uses one example.
A cookie company used an image of a large bear in their advertisements. After watching the ad repeatedly, consumers strongly connected the image of the bear with the cookies. When they see a bear, they automatically associate it with the cookies. This is a good example of image advertising.
An example of information bias is believing that the more information that can be acquired to make a decision, the better, even if that extra information is irrelevant for the decision.

According to the reading, people tend to think that more information is always better to make a decision, although additional information is often irrelevant to the decision. This is called information bias. The professor uses his own experience to explain this.
The professor wanted to hire an assistant and interviewed candidates. The first person was an ideal person for the job, but the professor continued interviewing other candidates. When he decided to hire the first candidate, he was already hired by another project. This is a good example of information bias.
According to the reading, molding is an advertising technique to explain in detail how to use a product, so that consumers feel confident in using the product. The professor uses his own experience.
The professor wanted to purchase an ice cream maker, but he hesitated because the process of making ice cream seemed so complicated. One day he saw an ad which explained everything about how to use this ice cream maker. He was convinced that the process was not so complicated and finally bought the unit. This is a good example of molding.

[ 2013/01/10 23:26 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(0)




TOEIC 990点
TOEFL iBT 119点(2015年7月11日、2年間有効)

学歴:University of Missouri at Rolla 工学部原子力工学科卒業



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