TOEFL100点以上を目指す社会人の方のための集中勉強会のご案内です。

一回の受講で、100点までの道のりが明確に見えるようになりますので、安心してその後の勉強を実施することができます。

TOEFL学習記録130

引き続き、TOEFL Speakingの最難関Task4の練習です。
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T4-1
According to the reading, when people face problems, they either do nothing or take actions. But they often opt to do nothing because they believe taking actions will further worsen the situation. This is called problem handling mechanism. The professor uses his own experience.
One day, he was driving to the airport and got stuck in traffic. He thought about taking another route but did not do so and kept waiting in the traffic and ended up with missing the airplane.
This demonstrates problem handling mechanism.
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T4-2
According to the reading, a business may perform a research on psychological reasons why customers buy or not buy a certain product without letting customers know the real intent of the research. This is called motivation research. The professor uses one example.
A clothing company was suffering a low business volume and wanted to know the reason. Instead of directly asking customers, they gave fashion magazines to customers and asked them to cut out their favorite fashion pictures. This way the company found out the real problem.
This is a good example of motivation research.
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T4-3
Everyone wants to be a member of a certain group. This is called friend affiliation. Advertisers use this concept effectively to promote their products. The professor uses two examples.

First, in one advertisement, everyone is drinking the same brand of soda and have a good time watching a football game.
Second, in another advertisement, a boy started to drink a competitor’s soda, and suddenly all the people around him became quiet, stared at him, and left him alone.

These examples demonstrate how advertisers use the concept of friend affiliation.
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T4-4
According to the reading, some manufacturers produce spare parts and accessories only compatible with their products, so that customers are forced to use their spare parts and accessories. This is called customer lock-in. The professor uses his own experience.
The professor used to have a camera made by company A. One day, the lens of this camera was broken. He found a very good lens made by another company, but this was not compatible with his camera. In the end, he had to buy another lens made by the company A.
This is a good example of customer lock-in.
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T4-5
According to the reading, two companies may form an alliance or partnership, taking advantages of each company’s resources and strong points and establishing a better position in the market. This is called strategic alliance. The professor uses one example.
A chocolate company established an alliance with a pretzel company. They developed a new product by coating pretzels with chocolate. This new product became a big hit in the market.
This is a good example of strategic alliance.
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T4-6
According to the reading, when people are angry about other people’s activities, they do no display the negative emotion immediately and later show the bad feeling in a passive way. This is called passive aggressive behavior. The professor uses his own experience.
His sister promised to attend his birthday party but did not attend because she became too busy. He was a little upset but understood her. Later, her sister invited him to a dinner, but he intentionally got there late. This is a good example of passive aggressive behavior.
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T4-7
According to the reading, when animals are attacked by predators, they make different noises to let other members know which predators are. This is called referential alarm call. The professor uses two examples.
First, meerkats make one kind of noise when a bird is approaching. Upon hearing this alarm, all other meerkats hide under the ground.
Second, they make another kind of noise when a snake is attacking. Upon hearing this alarm, all the meerkats gather and try to intimidate the snake.
These are good examples of reference alarm call.
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T4-8
For advertisers to be able to create attractive advertisements, they need to know about customers. Who are their customers? What do they like? This is called customer profile. The professor uses one example.
A milk company conducted a survey on customers. They found out potential customers are mostly mothers and they are concerned about nutrition of milk. So, the company designed an ad focusing on the nutrition of their milk, and they sold their milk successfully.
This is a good example of customer profile.
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T4-9
According to the reading, people tend to stick to one idea or information, although evidence indicates that it is wrong. This is called belief perseverance.
The professor uses his own experience.
When he was a child, his mother always told him to wear enough clothes and keep him warm not to catch a cold. Now he knows a cold is caused by a virus, he still keeps him warm when going outside in the winter. He even tells his children to wear enough clothes.
This is a good example of belief perseverance.
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T4-10
People often use a technique of diversion to shift the attention of people from the main point of a discussion. The professor uses one example. On a TV program two persons are debating about the fact that the government spent a lot of money to build a park. One person claimed the government spent too much money on the project. The other person, however, talked about other nonfinancial benefits of the park to stay away from discussing money.
This is a good example of diversion.
------------------------------------
T4-11
According to the reading, emotional display rules are informal rules about when, where, and how we should display our emotions. The professor uses one example.
A 4-year old daughter had a birthday party. Her mother told her before the party, if she did not like a gift, do not display the feeling. Her grandma give her a clothe, but she did not like. Mother said this is very cute, which reminded her daughter of hiding her emotion and thank grandma. So, she thanked grandma and gave her a hug.
This is a good example of emotional display rule.
---------------------------------
T4-12
According to the reading passage, animals must evaluate how they use energy between foraging and reproduction, This is called energy allocation.
The professor uses one example of male seal. They do not spend much energy on foraging because there are plenty of fish available where they live. However they spend a lot of energy on selecting a good location for meeting mates, and driving away other males. This is a good example of energy allocation.
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T4-13
According to the reading, information can be better remembered if it is generated from one’s own minds rather than just reading or hearing it. This is called generation effect. The professor uses two experiments to explain this.

In the first experiment, people watched an ad repeating the name of a soda several times. Later they were asked if they remembered the name. They did not.
In the second experiment, people watched the same ad but with additional question at the end, ”What is the name of this soda?” They remembered the name much better.
This is a good example of generation effect.
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T4-14
According to the reading, some animals when facing a problem can find a solution after thinking. This is called insight learning. The professor uses an example.
A chimpanzee was locked in a tall cage with a banana hanging from the ceiling. Initially, the chimp could not reach the banana and got disappointed. After thinking for a while, the chimp realized there were some boxes in the cage. He piled up those boxes and caught the banana successfully.
This is a good example of insight learning.
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T4-15
Some animals can hear high or low-pitch sounds that cannot be caught by human ears. The professor uses two examples.
First, baby birds, when sensing a predator approaching, raise high-pitch sounds that cannot be detected by the predator, but can be heard by parents.
Second, some insects emit high-pitch sounds to let other members know the location of food sources.
These are good examples of high or low-pitch sounds emitted by some animals.
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T4-16
According to the reading, some people tend to overly focus on negative sides of things. This is called magnification and may have significant impact on their decision making in the future. The professor uses one example.
His son wanted to become an actor. He performed in a drama and made a small mistake in acting, which never affected the overall performance of the drama. After the play, the professor praised him for his excellent performance, but the son did not like his performance and later decided to give up on his dream of becoming an actor.
This is a good example of magnification.
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T4-17
According to the reading, when a student is misbehaving, it is not a good idea to tell him or her to stop the wrongdoing. Instead, the teacher should praise other students for their good behaviors, so that this student will learn what is bad and good. This is called peer reinforcement. The professor uses one example.
Sarah, a girl student, did not clean toy blocks after use. The teacher told her repeatedly to clean the blocks, but she did not listen. Later, the teacher praised Tom for his good cleaning of his blocks. Then, Sarah learned what was wrong and started to clean her blocks. This is a good example of peer reinforcement.
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T4-18
According to the reading, people tend to form an impression on what they see based on their personal experiences in the past. This is called priming effect. The professor uses one example.

A woman was riding on a bus and she was thinking about her school life. A boy came on board, sat down, and started to read a book. The woman thought he was a school student. Another woman in the same bus was reading a poet book and she though this boy was a writer. This is a good example of priming effect.
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T4-19
According to the reading, when a person is promoted, he may not be able to handle new assignments or may not be able to lead the team. This is called promotion risk. The professor uses one example.
A designer was promoted for his excellent performance, but he could not lead his team. The company decided not to demote him because doing so would make him lose his confidence. This is a good example of promotion risk.
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T4-20
According to the reading, restoration ecology means that we try to restore things damaged or polluted. However, this initiative sometimes fails by neglecting some important factors. The professor uses one example.
In America, many weeds were lost by creating much farm land and people tried to restore weeds by planting seeds of weeds. However, this was not successful because they did not use fire as an important factor. Fire creates natural fertilizer to help the growth of weeds. This is a good example of a failure of restoration ecology.
-----------------------------------
これで、年末年始、Task4を50問消化しました。
少し慣れてきた感じがします。
少なくとも、このテンプレートでいけそうな感触が出てきました。
あと20問位やって、合計70問やったら、次の難関のTask6を同程度の問題数こなす予定です。
これで、同様な問題が本番で出たら確実に4点取れるようにしたいです。
是非、Speakingで30点取りたい。30点とれれば、120点の希望も見えてくる。

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[ 2013/01/09 12:32 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(0)
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Andy

Author:Andy
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TOEIC 990点
英検1級合格二次試験100点(優秀賞)
TOEFL iBT 119点(2015年7月11日、2年間有効)

名前:Andy
年齢:59歳
学歴:University of Missouri at Rolla 工学部原子力工学科卒業
職業:技術系の通訳を30年以上やっています。

仕事柄、欧米人と仕事をすることが多く、Andyというニックネームを使っています。
北陸の田舎に住んでいます。毎週、北陸新幹線にお世話になっています。
コシヒカリを食べて育った純粋な日本人です。
韓国語、中国語は全くできません。

毎月TOEFLを受験しています。
ソラシティ、武蔵小杉、テンプル大学麻布校3階が好きな会場です。

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