TOEFL100点以上を目指す社会人の方のための集中勉強会のご案内です。

一回の受講で、100点までの道のりが明確に見えるようになりますので、安心してその後の勉強を実施することができます。

TOEFL学習記録118

Usher Writing




Test 6

My template:
The reading passage presents three reasons why coal is still an important energy source and widely used. However, the professor states that these reasons are unsubstantiated and refutes them by providing his own compelling rebuttals to substantiate his assertion that coal is not good for humanity.

The first reason given by the reading passage is that coal is less costly than other sources due to its abundant reserve. On the contrary, the professor declares this is uncorroborated and contradicts the theory by saying that coal’s energy conversion efficiency is mere 10 percent, much less than oil and natural gas.


The second reason pointed out by the reading passage is that technologies to burn coal for generating electricity is well established based on a long term experience. On the other hand, the professor says this is unsubstantiated and casts doubt on this by stating that coal pollutes environment, especially solid and liquid waste from coal damage surface and subsurface water systems.

The third reason suggested by the reading passage is that coal is widely used in various manufacturing and industrial fields. Conversely, the professor explains that this is refutable and negates this theory by saying that toxic carbon monoxide emitted from coal burning plants are damaging to our health and technologies to minimize the CO emission has not been established.



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Test 7

The reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate a contention that European settlers caused the near-extinction of bison population. However, the professor contends that these reasons are unsubstantiated and provides his own compelling rebuttals to corroborate his theory that settlers did not cause the decline of the bison population.

The first reason provided by the reading passage is that European settlers overhunted buffalos. On the contrary, the professor states that this is unsubstantiated and negates this by saying that the trend of declining population started in the west, which does not match with the initial settlement of Europeans in the east.

The second reason supplied by the reading passage is that the use of long-range guns caused the near-extinction of buffalos. On the other hand, the professor says this is uncorroborated and contradicts this by saying that arrows and bows were as efficient as guns to kill buffalos.

The third reason identified by the reading passage is that domesticated animals brought by settlers reduced the grazing land of bisons. Conversely, the professor argues that this is untenable and counters this by saying that the competition of grazing lands did not exist because domesticated animals occupied relatively mild climate areas, whereas bisons could have gone to northern areas to feed.


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Test 8

The reading passage presents three theories to prove that Edmontosaurus were migratory from colder north to warmer south. However, the professor sates that these assertions are uncorroborated and provides his own compelling theories to substantiate that they were not migratory.

The first theory identified by the reading passage is that Edmontosaurus migrated to the southern regions in order to survive the severe winters. Conversely, the professor argues that this contention is unsubstantiated by stating that the climate when Edmontosaurus thrived was much warmer with aplenty of food sources and there was no need to migrate to southern areas.

The second theory given by the reading passage is that Edmontosaurus formed a herd and had to migrate to secure enough foods. On the contrary, the professor maintains that this claim is unjustifiable by stating that forming a herd does not automatically suggest that they are migratory. Furthermore, the migration gives predators more chances to attack them.

The third theory suggested by the reading passage is that Edmontosaurus were able to stand on their hind legs and move efficiently to the southern areas. On the other hand, the professor states that this statement is untenable by stating that only adult Edmontosaurus had this mobility and children had to stay behind or the entire herd must have moved at a slower pace.



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Test 9

The reading passage presents three reasons to support that sulfur filled rockets are not a good solution to the global warming. However, the professor states these assertions are unsubstantiated and provides his own theories to substantiate that the rockets are actually a good solution to the environmental problems.

The first reason presented by the reading passage is that sulfur would be combined with water vapor to form acid rain, which is detrimental to the environment. Conversely, the professor states this assertion is unsubstantiated by saying that this reaction between sulfur and water vapor will not happen because the stratosphere does not create water vapor.

The second reason provided by the reading passage is that it is very costly to launch a number of rockets. On the contrary, the professor states this contention is uncorroborated by saying that this solution is the cheapest among other solutions. For example, the professor uses an example of prohibitively expensive costs of using eco-friendly fuels for cars.

The third reason suggested by the reading passage is that the merit of this solution is limited to only one or two degrees drop in temperature. On the other hand, the professor states this claim is illogical by saying that one or two degrees are significant impact on the environment. Less melted glaciers would solve many environmental problems including the global warming.


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Test 10

The reading passage presents three pieces of evidence that substantiate that moa survived until the arrival of Europeans in New Zealand. However, the professor states these are unsubstantiated and provides his own theories to support that moa did not survive until the arrival of Europeans.

The first piece of evidence described by the reading passage is that Alice McKenzie had a sighting of moa like animal. Conversely, the professor states this is unsubstantiated because Alice McKenzie’s description of a moa like animal does not match with that of a real moa. For example, blue feather, a leg equal to her wrist in diameter, and foot prints of hens do not match a real moa.

The second piece of evidence suggested by the reading passage is that clean cut marks must have been made by a steel tool brought by Europeans. On the contrary, the professor states this is uncorroborated because the sharp cut marks could have been made by native tools made of obsidian or flint.

The third piece of evidence is that moa feathers were found together with European items. On the other hand, the professor states this is untenable because no skins or bones of boa were found and feathers obtained before the arrival of Europeans might have been buried with other European items.

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注意:上記の作文は私の長い勉強過程の一時期に書いたもので、使われているテンプレート、書き方などは現在使っているものと大きく違いますのでご注意ください。 勉強会でご紹介したものが現在のテンプレート、書き方です。

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[ 2012/12/27 10:14 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(0)
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Andy

Author:Andy
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TOEIC 990点
英検1級合格二次試験100点(優秀賞)
TOEFL iBT 119点

名前:Andy
年齢:59歳
学歴:University of Missouri at Rolla 工学部原子力工学科卒業
職業:技術系の通訳を30年以上やっています。

仕事柄、欧米人と仕事をすることが多く、Andyというニックネームを使っています。
北陸の田舎に住んでいます。毎週、北陸新幹線にお世話になっています。
コシヒカリを食べて育った純粋な日本人です。アメリカ人、ハーフではありません。
韓国語、中国語は全くできません。

毎月TOEFLを受験しています。
ソラシティ、武蔵小杉、テンプル大学麻布校3階が好きな会場です。

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