TOEFL100点以上を目指す社会人の方のための集中勉強会のご案内です。

一回の受講で、100点までの道のりが明確に見えるようになりますので、安心してその後の勉強を実施することができます。

TOEFL 学習記録116

Usher Writing 


Test 2
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語彙対策のテンプレート:

The reading passage presents three reasons to support a hypothesis that Sacsayhuaman walls were not built as a protective fortress. However, the professor claims that these arguments are unjustifiable and negates them by providing his own compelling rebuttals.

The first reason described by the reading passage is that Sacsayhuaman walls are not fully continuous, leaving many gaps which allows outsiders to easily  invade into the villages inside the walls. On the contrary, the professor states this is unsubstantiated because the Incas did not build a wall where there was a natural cliff for conserving building materials.  The professor adds that these gaps do not necessarily suggest that there were no walls.     


The second reason identified by the reading passage is that Sacsayhuaman walls have a large number of windows and doors which provide invaders with easy penetration into the villages. Conversely, the professor contends that this is uncorroborated because those small windows were used to visually detect enemies and they were too small for invaders to enter. 


The third reason suggested by the reading passage is that there are no wells or water sources inside the walls. On the other hand, the professor argues that this is refutable because the duration of each invasion was rather short.  Being located in a high elevation, invaders were only able to bring only limited amount of supply and they had to retrieve after each attack.    



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Hackersのシンプルなテンプレート:

The professor argues that Sacsayhuaman walls were built as a protective fortress.  This contradicts the reading passage’s claim that they were not built as a protective fortress.

 

To begin with, the professor says that the Incas did not build a wall where there was a natural cliff for conserving building materials.  In addition, the professor states that these gaps or no walls at the present time do not necessarily means there were no walls in the past.  This casts doubt on the reading passage’s claim that Sacsayhuaman walls are not fully continuous, leaving many gaps which allow outsiders to easily invade into the villages inside the walls.

 

In addition, the professor points out that small windows were used to visually detect enemies and they were too small for invaders to go through.  This counters the reading passage’s claim that Sacsayhuaman walls have a large number of windows and doors which provide invaders with easy penetration into the villages.

 

Lastly, the professor states that water sources were not necessary because the duration of each invasion was rather short.  As the walls were located in a high elevation, invaders were able to bring only limited amount of supplies and they could not stay for a long time. This refutes the reading passage’s claim that there are no wells or water sources inside the walls, which is an important element to fight with invaders.
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Test 3

語彙対策テンプレート:

 

The reading passage presents three functions of antlers. However, the professor claims that these arguments are unjustifiable and negates them by providing his own compelling rebuttals.

The first function described by the reading passage is that antlers work as a radiator to dissipate the heat of the body. On the contrary, the professor states this is unsubstantiated because antlers are only bones, not covered by velvet and do not function as radiators.  Furthermore, the professor says that some deer keep antlers during cold winter, which means they lose more heat and does not make sense.      


The second function identified by the reading passage is that deer use antlers to defend them against predators. Conversely, the professor contends that this is uncorroborated because female deer should also have antlers if they are used for defense.  Female deer use legs to defend against predators.     


The third function suggested by the reading passage is that the size of antlers represents social status in a herd. On the other hand, the professor argues that this is refutable because bucks with smaller antlers can lead a herd.  Those bucks with large antlers become leaders not because of the size of the antlers but they are more experienced and skilled.       


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Test 3

Hackers simple template:

 

The professor argues that three functions of antlers suggested by the reading passage are refutable.

 

To begin with, the professor says that antlers are only bones, not covered by velvet and do not function as radiators.  Furthermore, the professor says that some deer keep antlers during cold winter, which means they lose more heat and does not make sense.  This casts doubt on the reading passage’s claim that antlers work as radiators to dissipate the heat of the body..

 

In addition, the professor points out that female deer should also have antlers if they are used for defense.  Female deer use legs to defend against predators.  This counters the reading passage’s claim that deer use antlers to defend them against predators.

 

Lastly, the professor states that bucks with smaller antlers can lead a herd.  Those bucks with large antlers become leaders not because of the size of the antlers but because they are more experienced and skilled. This refutes the reading passage’s claim that the size of antlers represents social status in a herd.



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注意:上記の作文は私の長い勉強過程の一時期に書いたもので、使われているテンプレート、書き方などは現在使っているものと大きく違いますのでご注意ください。 勉強会でご紹介したものが現在のテンプレート、書き方です。

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[ 2012/12/25 11:57 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(0)
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Andy

Author:Andy
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TOEIC 990点
英検1級合格二次試験100点(優秀賞)
TOEFL iBT 119点

名前:Andy
年齢:59歳
学歴:University of Missouri at Rolla 工学部原子力工学科卒業
職業:技術系の通訳を30年以上やっています。

仕事柄、欧米人と仕事をすることが多く、Andyというニックネームを使っています。
北陸の田舎に住んでいます。毎週、北陸新幹線にお世話になっています。
コシヒカリを食べて育った純粋な日本人です。アメリカ人、ハーフではありません。
韓国語、中国語は全くできません。

毎月TOEFLを受験しています。
ソラシティ、武蔵小杉、テンプル大学麻布校3階が好きな会場です。

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