TOEFL100点以上を目指す社会人の方のための集中勉強会のご案内です。

一回の受講で、100点までの道のりが明確に見えるようになりますので、安心してその後の勉強を実施することができます。

TOEFL学習記録157

How to master writing

14 Business & Economy

Being happy with a job is more important than having a high salary.

Some contend that being happy with a job is more crucial than earing a high salary. Others argue that making a lot of money is of prime importance. If asked, both groups would present compelling arguments to substantiate their stances. In my opinion, having a satisfying job is far more important.

Admittedly, one needs money to purchase goods and services, take care of children, and have a comfortable life after retirement. Although many people are not happy with their jobs, they keep working to earn money to achieve those objectives. For example, my parents are not necessarily satisfied with their jobs, but they work to earn money to send my brother and me to college. For them, providing good education to my brother and me is of prime importance and they always are ready to make sacrifices to do this.

On the contrary, people having a satisfying job tend to perform better. In other words, those who are happy with their jobs are better and motivated workers. For example, my brother worked at a restaurant as a waiter. As he hated serving customers and listening to instructions of his boss, he did not perform well. Many customers complained about his poor services. At the end, he was fired due to his poor performance. If he had enjoyed his job, he would have behaved much differently and treated his customers with more courtesy.

In addition, those who enjoy working have less stress than those who dislike their jobs. Happiness is definitely the best cure for stresses. When I take a train to go to school, I hear people complaining about their jobs, hours, bosses, and salaries. They have too much stresses. My mother, on the other hand, is a school teacher and loves her job and virtually has no stresses. Her joy seems to make her much happier and healthier than most people.

Some contend that being happy with a job is more crucial than earing a high salary, whereas others argue that making a lot of money is of prime importance. If asked, both groups would present compelling arguments to substantiate their stances. Admittedly, one needs money to purchase goods and services, take care of children, and have a comfortable life after retirement. On the contrary, people having a satisfying job tend to perform better. In addition, those who enjoy working have less stress than those who dislike their jobs. For these reasons, in my opinion, having a satisfying job is far more important. (414 words)
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15

Some argue that the government should spend more money supporting the arts. Others contend that the government should support the Olympic athletes. If asked, both groups would present their arguments to corroborate their stances. In my opinion, the government should support arts more than the Olympic athletes.

Admittedly, some argue that it is not cost effective to spend millions of dollars on a small number of the Olympic athletes. They may contend that it is a wiser investment for the government to spend money on building museums which attract a significantly larger number of people. As a matter of fact, my country sent a contingent of 200 athletes to the last Olympics and our government spent over 500 million dollars to support those 200 athletes only. In contrast, my city opened up a new art museum a few years ago, this cost the local government 5 million dollars only. Now it attracts hundreds of thousands of people every year. Their argument that spending money on arts is more cost effective seems to be convincing.

However, the Olympic athletes represent our country. When they win gold medals, that makes everyone very proud of our country and when our national flag is moving up the pole while listening to our national anthem, we feel like we are on the seventh heaven. They provide inspirations to many children and encourage them to practice hard on their sports. When I was ten years old, our national volley ball team won the gold medal in the Olympic game. I was so excited and decided to play volleyball and this event gave me a great inspiration and encouragement to the rest of my life.

On top of that, the Olympic athletes are mostly amateurs and they need the assistance of the government. Training to become Olympic athletes is very costly. For example, Japanese marathon runners run at Aspen Colorado where the air is thin due to its high altitude. It costs a huge amount of money to send those athletes and supporting staff to Aspen. Without the financial support of the government, they cannot compete against their competitors in the Olympic.

Some argue that the government should spend more money supporting the arts, whereas others contend that the government should spend more money supporting the Olympic athletes. Admittedly, some argue that it is not cost effective to spend millions of dollars on a small number of the Olympic athletes. However, the Olympic athletes represent our country. On top of that, the Olympic athletes are mostly amateurs and they need the assistance of the government. Based on the above reasons, in my opinion, the government should support arts more than the athletes. The Olympic is just one time event every four year, while the arts provide constant benefits to the public forever. (465 words)
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16 Environment & Technology

Some argue that the government should raise the price of gasoline and electricity. Others contend that the government should never intervene the market. If asked both groups would present compelling arguments to substantiate or unsubstantiate their stances. In my opinion, the government should increase the price of gasoline and electricity.

First of all, increasing the price of gasoline and electricity will definitely decrease the energy consumption of people. Most people cannot afford to pay higher prices and are forced to cut down on their consumption of gasoline and electricity. For example, people will not use their cars for long distance travels. Instead, they will use public transportations such as busses and trains. They will use more bicycles or walk for short distance travels. This brings a good side effect of improving the health of people by riding on bikes and walking. Higher gas and electricity prices will definitely reduce the energy consumption of the public.
In addition, higher prices of gasoline and electricity will encourage people to use other sources of energy that are not contingent upon gasoline. Nowadays, it is a worldwide trend to increase the ratio of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar energies. For example, my house is equipped with some solar panels which can supply about a half of the total energy consumption of my house. Furthermore, my house has a solar water heater, so that in sunny days, the unit can satisfy all the hot water requirements of my house. This way, higher process of gasoline can lead to lower energy consumption of people by relying on more renewable energy sources.

Finally, higher prices of gasoline and electricity generate more revenue for the government that can be spent on activities to further decrease the energy consumption. If the government spends the extra money wisely, the problem of the energy shortage of our country can be minimized. To be specific, the government could use the additional money to build more bike lanes and plant more trees or other causes that contribute to the welfare of the public.

In conclusion, some claim that the government should raise the price of gasoline and electricity, whereas others maintain that the government should never intervene the market. First of all, increasing the price of gasoline and electricity will definitely decrease the energy consumption of people, will encourage people to use other sources of energy that are not contingent upon gasoline, and generate more revenue for the government that can be spent on activities to further decrease the energy consumption. For these reasons, in my opinion, the government should increase the price of gasoline and electricity. This is demonstrated by the fact that most developed countries regulate the prices of gasoline and electricity in one way or another. (459 words)

構想に3分、作文に22分、見直しに5分が理想的。
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注意:上記の作文は私の長い勉強過程の一時期に書いたもので、使われているテンプレート、書き方などは現在使っているものと大きく違いますのでご注意ください。 勉強会でご紹介したものが現在のテンプレート、書き方です。

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[ 2013/05/31 11:17 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(0)

TOEFL学習記録156

How to master writing

テンプレート追従型の英作文:
University students should not be required to attend classes. Instead, they should be able to receive credits through a final exam or paper.

Some people believe that students should be able to get credits by passing final exams only without attending classes. Others think that students should attend classes to get credits. If asked, both groups would present compelling arguments to corroborate or uncorroborate their assertions. In my opinion, students should attend classes to learn other viewpoints and to have deep understanding of subjects.

Admittedly, some students who are gifted should be able to get credits by taking final exams only without attending classes. As a matter of the fact, it is a waste of time for those excellent students to attend classes where they already are familiar with subjects. My cousin, Tom, was one of those gifted students. He studied most of science related subjects by himself and by the age of ten, he has mastered all the university level subjects such as calculus, trigonometric, physics, and chemistry. As a result, in high school, all he had to do was taking final exams to get credits for those classes. If he had had to attend those classes, he would have bored himself to death. This example demonstrates that it is better off for gifted students not to attend classes.

However, attending classes is necessary for most students to learn perspectives of other students through discussions. Having ears to listen to others is presumably one of the most important attributes to be successful in one’s life. In addition, often listening to others is the most efficient way to learn subject matters at hand. A history teacher in my high school encouraged us to discuss various historical issues. For example, we debated on reasons of the demise of the Roman Empire. Through discussions, I was able to learn opinions of other students and also learn normally very boring historical events in a more effective and interesting manner. This example emphasizes the importance of lending ears to others.

On top of that, some knowledge can be only learned by attending classes. One may be able to superficially learn knowledge by overnight cramming, but such knowledge is volatile and easily forgotten immediately after exams. My uncle skipped many classes in college but managed to get good grades by last minute cramming. Later, when he was employed by a company, his supervisor found out that my uncle did not have any basic knowledge on his major and had to fire him eventually. Now he is working as a waiter in a restaurant to earn the minimum wage. This example focuses on deep learning by attending classes.

Some people believe that students should be able to get credits by passing final exams only without attending classes, whereas others think that students should attend classes to get credits. Admittedly, some gifted students should be allowed to get credits by taking final exams only. However, attending classes is necessary for most students to learn other perspectives. On top of that, some knowledge can be only learned by attending classes. For these reasons, in my opinion, students should attend classes. It is important that students attend classes just like workers reporting to their work places. (514 words)

最初のbody paragraphは自分の意見と反対の意見を作る。
二番目と三番目で自分の意見を主張する。
この方法で3つのアイデアが浮かばなくても、なんとか3パラグラフ作れ、500ワードが可能となる。

500ワードが目標。E-raterは長い作文を評価してくれる。

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11 School & Education

Schools should teach students about specific careers and jobs instead of general subjects

Some people think that students should study career and job related subjects. Others think that students should also study other general subjects. If asked, both groups would present compelling arguments to corroborate or uncorroborate their assertions. In my opinion, schools should teach a wide range of subjects as opposed to specific job oriented subjects.

Admittedly, it is a reasonable argument that one should not study subjects that he would never ever use in his later life. It would not be cost effective to invest money on something we never use. For art major students, while studying some basic mathematics is of some value, studying high level mathematics such as calculus and differential equations is virtually a waste of time because he or she would not use differential equations in his or her entire life. Likewise, for engineering students, studying high level literature or history classes would not do any good in his future engineering career. This lends truth to the adage that Jack of all trades, master of none.

However, a broad range of knowledge is required to achieve tasks in this highly advanced modern world. Specialists alone cannot complete projects without the assistance of multidisciplinary efforts of other fields. My father is a mechanical engineer who has been recently assigned to a project leader to develop a new car model in his company. He explains to me that his job requires a broad range of knowledge such as engineering, art, marketing, financing, and advertising. He regrettably admitted that he should have studied seriously those other non-engineering subjects in his college days. This example demonstrates that schools should provide students with a vast rage of subject matters.

On top of that, seemingly unrelated subjects often lend a great assistance to your future careers. My uncle is an ear doctor and he performs very complicated ear surgeries to repair those tiny bones inside the ear drum to restore the hearing abilities of his patients. He told me that music and art really helped him to master highly delicate and complicated skills of ear surgeries. He says that performing an ear surgery is akin to playing the piano and drawing a picture on a canvas. Delicate finger motions are integral to the success of surgeries. A single mistake on the piano keyboard and a single error on the paint brush stroke is equivalent to an error in a surgery resulting in the total hearing loss of a patient. This example addresses the importance of studying seemingly unrelated subjects.

Some people think that students should study career and job related subjects, whereas others think that students should also study other general subjects. Admittedly, one should not study subjects that he would never ever use in his later life. However, a broad range of knowledge is required to achieve tasks in this highly advanced modern world. On top of that, seemingly unrelated subjects often lend a great assistance to your future careers. For these reasons, in my opinion, schools should teach a wide range of subjects as opposed to specific job oriented subjects. Our schools should not create computer nerds who do not know anything about other fields. (536 words)

コピペを多用するが、E-rater対策としてできるだけ500ワードに限られた時間で近づくにはコピペを利用してワード数を増やしたい。特に、TOEFL初級者は、このテンプレートが役に立つと思う。
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12 Living &Thinking I

Getting advice from friends of an older age would be more valuable than from friends your own age.

Some people contend that receiving advice from older friends is better than having advice from friends your age. Others argue that friend your age can give you better advice than older friends. If asked, both groups would present compelling assertions to corroborate or uncorroborate their claims. In my opinion, having advice from older friends is superior to getting advice from friends of my age.

Admittedly, my friends my age, sharing the same experience and problem with me, they can give me better advice and I can relate to them. My parents on the other hand may not exactly understand exactly how I feel about a problem. For example, once I wanted to attend a dance party that was scheduled to be finished at one in the morning, which exceeded my curfew time of midnight. My parents declined my request and did not allow me to participate in the party. I was furious about this decision and consulted my friend of the same age. She told me that she had the identical problem with her parents and explained to me that my parents were concerned about my safety more than anything. After listening to her explanation, though I was still upset about my parents, at the least I understood their viewpoints. So, my friends my age can give me more appropriate recommendations because they share the same experience and problem as mine.

However, since older friends have already experienced mistakes, they can advise me not to repeat the same errors. My friends of my age would not do so, because they have not made as many mistakes as my older friends. Currently I am having a problem determining what should be my major in college. I like engineering but my mathematics grades are on the lower sides. My father recommended me to pursue my interests no matter what my grades in math are. He was also interested in engineering, but he hesitated to pursue this avenue simply because his math grades were poor and he regrets now that he made this decision. So, older friends based on errors they made in the past can give good recommendations to you.

On top of that, older friends have extensive experience as to how to address personal relationships. When it comes to interpersonal skills, older friends have much more experience than friends my age. A few years ago, I had a personal problem with my girlfriend. She was mad at me and did not talk to me for a long time and I did not know what made her upset. My older friends based on his similar experience, suggested me to send flowers to her first. Then, only when she is ready to have a dialogue with you, I should ask her what made her upset. This solution really worked out and I was able to restore our relationship. With respect to personal relationship, older people have much stronger edges over the young.

Some people contend that receiving advice from older friends are better than having advice from friends your age, whereas others argue that friend your age can give you better advice than older friends. Admittedly, my friends my age, sharing the same experience and problem with me, they can give me better advice and I can relate to them. However, since older friends have already experienced mistakes, they can advise me not to repeat the same errors. On top of that, older friends have extensive experience as to how to address personal relationships. Based on these reasons, in my opinion, having advice from older friends is superior to getting advice from friends of my age. The best thing about my friends my age is that they share the same feelings and experiences as mine, so that they can relate to my problems better than my older friends. (631 words)

ちょっと長すぎました。残り時間が2分で見直しが十分できませんでした。
participate in a party, attend a party
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13 Family & Society

The extended family is less important now than it was in the past.

Some argue that extend family members still play an important role as it was in the past. Others contend that extended family members no longer assume crucial role in the modern society. If asked, both groups would present compelling arguments and corroborate or uncorroborate their assertions. In my opinion, I believe that extended family members do not play as an important role as it was in the past.

Admittedly, though it is not so common anymore, some families are not nuclear families, meaning that several generations of members live under the same roof. In these cases, extended family members still play very important roles. For example, my grandmother lives with us. She provides a great deal of assistance in performing many of house chores such as cooking, cleaning, washing clothes, and babysitting. As both my mother and father are full time employees, without the helping hands of my grandmother, our family lives will not function properly. As a matter of fact, when I was young, it was my grandmother who took care of me and my younger brother. So, in some families, extend family members are still playing important roles.

However, most people today no longer need to rely on extended family members. In the past when farming was popular and much work forces were required to perform various farming duties. In those days, extended family members must have played very important roles in providing labor forces in farming activities. Today, however, all farming activities are done by machines and virtually one person can handle all activities alone without any help from others. For example, my parents are farmers and thanks to all kinds of mechanized machines and tools, they do not require any support from others. So, most people, even farmers nowadays do not have to rely on other extended family members.

On top of that, many extended family members live far away and they do not see one another frequently. As a result, they do not play any crucial roles as it was in the past. Take my uncles and aunts for example. They all live very far from my house; I get to see them once or twice a year. They are independent families and they do not rely on my family financially. I enjoy playing with my cousins when they visit our house, but again it happens once or twice a year and their involvement with my family is very limited. This lends truth to the adage that out of sight out of mind.

Some argue that extend family members still play an important role as it was in the past. Others contend that extended family members no longer assume crucial role in the modern society. Admittedly, in some families, extended family members still play very important roles. However, most people today no longer need to rely on extended family members. On top of that, many extended family members live far away and they do not see one another frequently. For these reasons, in my opinion, I believe that extended family member do not play as an important role as it was in the past. As the majority of families today are nuclear families, their dependency on extended family members is much less than it was in the past. (543 words)

3分残り。5分残したいところ。
nuclear family 核家族
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注意:上記の作文は私の長い勉強過程の一時期に書いたもので、使われているテンプレート、書き方などは現在使っているものと大きく違いますのでご注意ください。 勉強会でご紹介したものが現在のテンプレート、書き方です。


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[ 2013/05/12 07:05 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(0)

TOEFL MAP ACTUAL TEST Speaking Q6 私の解答

Actual test speaking 1

TOEFL MAP ACTUAL TEST Speaking Q6

Test 1
The professor explains two negative impacts of roads on ecology.
First, roads and cars can carry weeds to new locations. For example, a car can carry seeds from a forest to other new locations, and weeds grow in new locations and may disturb the local ecology.
Second, roads create barriers for animal migrations. Take pronghorns for example. They are reluctant to cross roads and my die due to starvation. Other animals such as snakes, frogs, and porcupines can cross roads without problems but may get hit by cars when crossing.

模範解答は長すぎて、60秒では無理。
Weeds outcompete flowers and crops for precious soil and water resources.
I know that every marriage - and every relationship for that matter - has its ups and downs.
When you drive to the park, forest, or anywhere else for that matter, your vehicle picks up weed seeds.
Roads present animals with unnatural obstacles.
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Test 2

The professor explains two types of feathers loons have to keep them warm and dry in winter.
The outer feathers give colors and shapes of loons and function as keeping the inner feathers and the skin dry as they repel water. They also function as a diver’s suit when loons dive into water to catch fish.
The inner feathers are called down feathers. They are soft and fluffy and function as thermal insulator to keep the loons warm.

Crustaceans 甲殻類
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Test 3
The professor explains two types of human immune systems to protect our bodies from pathogens.
The inner immune systems include our skin and mucus. The skin provides a shell to stop pathogens entering our bodies. The mucus covers our respiratory system from throat to lung and trap pathogens.
The outer immune systems include white cells that find and kill pathogens. The digestive track also kills pathogens by using acids and bacteria.

There are two parts to the human immune system.
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Test 4
The professor explains two ways animal change their fur according to seasons.
First, bears, rabbits, and cats have thick layer of fur during winter to survive in cold climate. In summer, they shed fur to prevent overheating. As winter approaches, they grow thick fur again.
Second, rabbits change the color of fur to escape from predators. In summer, the fur is brown to blend in woods. In winter, the fur changes to white to blend in snow, so that predators cannot spot them easily.

Yet in places further south where the seasons and weather conditions differ, the fur of many animals changes in response to the varying conditions.
Animals rid themselves of extra fur which could cause their bodies to overheat in hot summer conditions. Rid A of B.
This lets them more easily camouflage themselves in the snow.
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Test 5
The professor explains two types of playing by children.
The first one is associative play. Children play freely without rules and goals. All ages of children play in this way once they develop motor and cognitive skills. For example, two children in a sand box with some toys play freely as they please and do whatever comes to mind.
The second type is called cooperative play. Children play together to achieve a goal under some rules. They learn how to cooperate and interact with other kids. Children above age two perform this kind of play.

Children do as they please and do anything that their imaginations come up with.
Doing whatever comes to mind.
Sports and board games are prime examples of activities that involve cooperative play.
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Test 6
The professor explains two animals that perform group feeding.
First, lions are predators and form a group to attack a prey. They corner a prey, kill it and eat it together.
Second, deer is a prey and they live together to eat plants. While some deer watch predators, other deer eat plants. Then they rotate the roles, so that everyone can have chances of eating.

Lions live in prides. 群れ
Many preys are faster than lions, so they can elude a single lion.
Elude the press 報道陣をかわす、から逃げる
This enables each deer to spend an optimal amount of time feeding while only having to be on guard for a short time.
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Test 7
The professor explains two plants that have aerial roots, that is, roots above ground.

First, mangrove trees grow in coastal areas and they have aerial roots. There are two functions of the aerial roots. One is to stay away from salinity of sea water, and the other being able to absorb nutrients by taking gas from air.
Second, maze is a kind of corn plant which has both normal underground roots and additional aerial roots called brace roots. Maze has a thin and tall stem loaded with corn, so the brace roots provide support to the long stem.

Fully laden car (loaded car)
Laden with corn コーンの荷物を積んだ
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Test 8
The professor explains two kinds of adaptations by Arctic animals.
First, animals have protective layers to keep them warm. Take bears for example. They have two layers of protection, one is fat and the other being fur to protect them from cold climate. Birds have fat and feathers to protect them from coldness.
Second, animals have special body traits to protect them from cold temperatures. Fox and hare have small round bodies with short legs. The small body helps protect critical internal organs and shorter legs help reduce the heat loss due to their smaller surface area.

The fat and fur act like insulation as they keep out the cold while retaining the heat the body generates.
Keep out the cold 寒さを遮る
Keep out dusts
Keep out drafts
Keep out the sun 遮る
It grows thick feathers, even on its extremities.
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Test 9
When a company is in financial troubles, the professor explains two actions that can be taken to reduce costs and improve sales.
First, the company can perform a downsizing, which is to reduce the number of employees or eliminating some divisions. This way, the company may be able to reduce costs and become profitable again.
Second, the company can offer discounts on its products and services. As the price becomes lower, customers may start buying the product again and the company can regain a higher sales volume. As the original price includes a high markup, the discount will not result in a loss and the company can maintain a small profit by increasing the sales volume.

Downsizing has become the go-to strategy of many companies upon suffering financial difficulties.
Several workers at each department are let go. 解雇される
Most companies give their products high markups over the basic production. 利幅、値上げ
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Test 10
The professor explains two eye positions of birds and their advantages.

First, predator birds such as hawks and falcons have their eyes in the front of heads. They can see far distance and have better depth perception. This helps them to locate a prey from high in the air and dive to the prey easily.

Second, prey birds have eyes on the sides of the heads. This way, they can see predators coming from the sides or from behind. However, their view to the front is poor, and they compensate for this by moving their heads.

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Test 11
The professor explains two animal species taking advantages of wet lands.

First, sharks come to wetlands to lay eggs, so that baby sharks can feed and grow without being attacked by predators of open oceans.

Second, sandpipers come to wetlands to feed and rest. They migrate long distance every season. Wetlands provide them with foods such as insects and worms and also resting places prior to moving to the next destinations.

Invertebrate 無脊椎動物
Vertebrate 脊椎動物
Wet lands protect young sharks from the dangers that lurk in the open ocean. Lurk in ~に潜む
Once they are more mature, they head out to the ocean.
Once full and rested, they continue with the next stage of their journey.
Continue with the next stage of the project
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Test 12
The professor explains two examples of mutualism between ants and trees.
First, acacia ants and acacia trees. The trees provide nectar to ants, while the ants provide soldiers to protect trees from other enemy insects. Ants also eat other plants nearby, so that trees can receive more sun light.
Second, lemon ants and Duroia hirsute trees. The ants release acid to kill all other plants, resulting in a large area of only this plant. This is called devil’s garden. In return, the trees provide shelter and foods to the ants.

Herbivores herbivores herbivores vores herbivores
Carnivores carnivores carnivores vores carnivores スペルが難しい
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Test 13
The professor explains two features when a company develops a new product.
First, the product should be easy to use. Take a ketchup glass bottle, for example. Often ketchup won’t come out or a large amount comes out at once. So the company developed a squeezable plastic bottle. Now a right amount of ketchup comes out.
Second, the product should be attractive to consumers. Take a cookie container, for example. A company developed a tin box with beautiful paintings on it. Customers love this because they can use the box as a decoration after eating cookies.

Ketchup would come out in too great an amount.
Take cookie container as an example.
This makes customers more likely to buy the products in the first place since they can get another use out of them.
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Test 14
The professor explains two types of defenses used by animals.
The first is physical defense. Take walking sticks for example. They blend in tree branches so that predators cannot locate them. Grasshoppers detach their legs to escape from predators.
The second is chemical defenses. Stinkbugs release bad smell substance to deter predators. Bees and hornets have stingers to inject toxin to predators.
These examples demonstrate defenses by animals.

Predators think of insects as tasty treats.
Insect physical defenses come in a variety of forms.
Awful-smelling chemicals, awful, awful, awful, awful, awful
The smell is so intense that it drives predators away, thereby saving the stinkbug’s life.
Typing practice: awful, awful, away, away, away, awful
Environmental problems are akin to drug trafficking: individuals have neither the power nor the resources to address the problems.
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Test 15
The professor explains two animals that help keep soil healthy.
First, earth worms eat soil, grind organic matters, and release them as nutrients into soil. They also release sticky material to make soil compact. Furthermore, they create gaps in soil for air and water retention.
Second, elephants eat a large amount of vegetation and release about 100 kg per day of manure that give nutrients such as nitrogen into soil and improve the soil productivity.

Spell: Retention, retention, retention, retention, retention, retention, attention,
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Test 16
The professor explains two kinds of defenses used by animals.
The first is active defenses. Those animals having claws, teeth, and horns fight against predators. They do not have to run away from predators. For example, bulls and rhinos have horns, and cats, wolves, and bears have claws and sharp teeth to fight against predators.
The second is passive defenses. Deer and antelopes flee at fast speed when faced with a predator. Grass snakes and possums play dead. When they spot a predator, they roll over and play like they are dead. Once the predator departs, they rise and escape.

Spell: rhinoceros, rhinoceros, rhinoceros, rhinoceros, rhinoceros, rhinoceros, opossum, opossum, opossum, opossum,フクロネズミ
Those animals stand their ground and fight. 一歩も引かず戦う
I intend to stand my ground. 譲歩するつもりはありません。
They flee at the first sight of danger.
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Test 17
The professor explains two countermeasures farmers use to prevent the soil erosion.
First, farmers plant crops with deep root systems. Deep roots anchor the soil and prevent the soil from being blown away by strong winds. Tomato and broccoli are good examples.
Second, farmers establish various barriers such as line of trees to block winds. Mulch and plastic sheets are used to cover the top surface of the soil. Stone walls and ditches are used to control the water erosion of the soil.
These examples demonstrate effective soil erosion prevention measures.


Mulch  木くずなどで土地の表面を覆うこと
Spell: erosion, erosion, erosion, erosion, erosion
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Test 18
The professor explains two adaptations of animals living in mountain areas.
First, animals have thick fur to withstand the cold climate and strong winds. Take mountain goats for example. They grow thick fur during winter and shed it during summer.
Second, animals have specialized legs and hooves. For example, big horn sheep have large hooves and strong legs, so that they can move easily in rocky mountain surfaces without slipping or falling.
These examples demonstrate adaptations of animals living in high altitudes.

Hoof ひずめ、hooves
They must be able to negotiate the rocky landscape.
The thick fur protect it from the elements such as snow and wind.
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これでこの本の18セット終了。


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[ 2013/05/10 21:35 ] TOEFL | TB(-) | CM(0)

TOEFL MAP ACTUAL TEST Speaking Q4 私の解答

Actual test speaking 1


TOEFL MAP ACTUAL TEST Speaking Q4

Test 1

According to the reading, in mental accounting, people set up different money accounts in their minds and define a budgetary limit on each account. If the limit is exceeded, they will not spend more, even if they have enough money. The professor uses two examples to explain this.

First, his wife bought a bag of donuts for 5 dollars and left the bag on a bus, but did not buy it again because 10 dollars exceed her budget for donuts.

Second, a family was planning to buy a house. One day a car was broken but the family decided not to repair the car, because saving money to buy a house was more important than fixing the car.

In summary, these examples demonstrate mental accounting.

Thanks for listening. Have a great day. 54 seconds
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Test 2

According to the reading, assimilation is a process immigrants go through when they move to a new country. Typically, assimilation involves adjusting themselves to the new language and customs. The professor uses two examples to explain this process.

First, her cousin married a Brazilian woman. She came to America and successfully assimilated to the new place by learning new customs and language. Now most people think she is a native.

Second, some immigrants successfully learn new language, customs, and behaviors in America by watching TV programs such as sit-coms (situation comedy), soap operas, and Sesame Street.

In summary, these examples demonstrate assimilation.

Thanks for listening and have a great day. 50 sec.
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Test 3

When people recollect an event in the past, they tend to remember the highlights or the final event but forget about other minor details. This is called the peak-end rule. The professor uses two examples to explain this.

First, his family went to a vacation. It was rainy in the first half of the vacation, but it was sunny in the second half. All family members recalled later that the entire vacation was fun.
Second, he and his friend went to see a football game. The first three quarters were not exciting, but the fourth quarter was very exciting. His friend later stated that the entire game was exciting.

In summary, these examples demonstrate the peak end rule.

Thanks for listening and have a great day. 48 sec.
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Test 4
According to the reading, business owners hire secret shoppers to test and evaluate the services provided by employees. This is called customer service testing. The professor explains two examples to demonstrate this concept.

First, the professor owned a restaurant and hired a secret shopper to test the services of his staff. One waitress provided excellent services to the secret customer, and she was promoted.

On the other hand, a cook became angry and spoke dirty words when a dish was returned by the test customer. He was fired.

These examples demonstrate the concept of customer service testing.

Thanks for listening and have a great day. 50 sec.
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Test 5
According to the reading, plants in rainforests make adaptations to particular conditions of rainforests such as limited sun light and constant wet conditions. The professor uses urn plants to describe this.

First, urn plants dwell on tall tree to receive enough amount of sunlight, but too much light actually damages them.

Second, urn plants have cup-shaped leaves to store water, so that they can receive water whenever they want.

These demonstrate adaptations of rainforest plants.
Thanks for listening and for your patience. Hope you have a great day. Bye now. 45sec.
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Test 6
When a company has a new product, first it identifies potential target groups of people, and then test the product on those people prior to releasing it. Based on the test results, the company can make modifications to the product. This is called target marketing. The professor uses two examples.

First, a movie studio tested a new animated movie on children before releasing. The responses from children were good, and so was the actual performance.

Second, a movie studio produced a drama movie and tested it on adult women. They complained a lot, but the studio released it without modifications. The movie was a failure.

These examples demonstrate target marketing. Thanks. 53 sec.
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Test 7

According to the reading, emotional intelligence is the ability of people to understand emotions of others and to act fittingly in response to their emotions. This ability helps one’s personal and business life.
The professor uses two examples.

First, the professor, her daughter, and her friends went to a DVD store, but her friends took a long time selecting DVDs and the professor became inpatient and upset. Understanding this, her daughter encouraged her friends to hurry up.

Second, the professor controlled her temper and did not make a scene (yell at her daughter) in front of her friends, because the professor knew her daughter had been under stresses from mid-term exam.
These examples demonstrate emotional intelligence.
Thanks for listening. 48sec.
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Test 8

According to the reading, some species dwelling in the water migrate vertically in the water to look for light, prey, temperature, etc. The professor explains two examples.

First, zoo planktons migrate to deeper depths at dawn and shallower depths at dusk to evade predators.

Second, sea creatures in Arctic migrate to deeper depths to escape from fresh water created by melting of glaciers during summer season.

These examples demonstrate vertical migration.

Thanks for listening and have a great day. 43 sec.
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Test 9
According to the reading, businesses employ various pricing techniques such as penetration pricing and promotional pricing to promote their products. The professor explain these techniques.

First, the professor explains penetration pricing. A new department store sells products at 20% discount to gain new customers. Later it can increase the prices.
Second, the professor explains promotional pricing. A company introduces new diet sodas at a discounted price to break into the new market. Later the price can be increased.

These examples demonstrate pricing techniques.

Thanks for listening and hope you have a great day.
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Test 10

According to the professor, mutualism is a kind of symbiosis that benefits both organisms. The professor uses two examples.
First, bees and flowers help each other, bees getting nectar from flowers, while flowers getting pollinated.

Second, crocodiles and Egyptian plovers help each other, plovers eating meat from teeth of crocodiles while crocodiles getting teeth cleaned.

These examples demonstrate mutualism.

Thanks for listening and have a great day. Bye now. 40 sec.
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Test 11
According to the reading, some people specialize in one field and do not know anything about other fields that might be related with his or her field. This is called technical incapacity.
The professor explains two examples.
First, her English professor was an expert in Shakespearean literature and its era, whereas he could not teach modern literature because he did not learn modern literature.
Second, a cell phone manufacturing company asked engineers to write an instruction manual, but they used difficult technical terms unreadable to the general public.
These examples demonstrate technical incapacity.
Thanks for listening and have a great day. Bye now. 47 sec.
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Test 12
According to the reading, businesses try to stimulate our five senses to promote their products. This is called sensory marketing. The professor uses two examples.
First, a pizza restaurant has an open kitchen so that customers can watch chefs cooking their pizzas. Customers stay longer and order more foods. This is appealing to the sense of sight.
Second, a cosmetic store uses various kinds of aroma to lure customers into the shop. Customers stay longer and purchase more goods. This is appealing to the sense of smell.
These examples demonstrate sensory marketing.
Thanks for listening and have a great day. Bye now. 45 sec.
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Test 13
According to the reading, people have bad habits such as eating and drinking too much. They can imagine an idea that can be associated with unpleasant feelings in order to stop bad habits. This is called negative ideation. The professor uses two examples.
First, chocolate lovers can imagine chocolates are mud, so that they lose desire to eat chocolates, or even hate to see chocolates.
Second, a woman who wants to quit drinking may imagine that all alcohols taste disgusting to stop drinking.
These examples demonstrate negative ideation.
Thanks for listening and have a great day. Bye now. 45 sec.
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Test 14
According to the reading, businesses make catchy advertisements to attract customers to purchase items or services. The professor uses two examples.
First, Apple Computer released a famous advertisement based on the Jorge Orwell’s story during the Super bowl match in 1984. This ad was so attractive that Apple’s computers became very popular.
Second, Coca Cola utilizes multiple advertisements such as TV, radio, billboards, and songs to attract customers. In fact, Coke is the number one soft drink in the world.
These examples demonstrate how attractive advertising can promote products and services. Thanks for listening and have a great day. 48 sec.
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Test 15
According to the reading, when people recollect a decision made in the past, they tend to remember only positive reasons for the decision and forget about negative factors. They even add new positive reasons to justify the decision. This is called choice supportive bias. The professor uses two examples.
First, he bought a house to be close to his work place. Later being asked why he bought house, he responded with a new reason of good neighbors.
Second, he started to jog to lose weight, but when asked why he started jogging, he mentioned enjoyment of running in nature.
These examples demonstrate choice supportive bias.
Thanks for listening and have a great day. Bye now. 47 sec.
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Test 16
According to the reading, people have limited amount of resources, so they can do only one activity at a time. When there are two possible activities, people consider what if I have done the second option and evaluate positive and negative factors. In other words they evaluate the opportunity cost.
The professor uses two examples.
First, a student has a test tomorrow and also invited to a dinner. The opportunity cost of studying for the test is missing the dinner, while that of having the dinner is poor grade in the exam.
Second, a person has 30 dollars and he can spend it for a dinner at a restaurant or buy groceries at a supermarket for several meals.
These examples demonstrate opportunity cost. Thanks. 50 sec.
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Test 17
According to the reading, some people tend to have too much confidence on their ability to accomplish a task, but in reality they fail to do the task and get disappointed. This is called the overconfidence effect. The professor uses two examples.
First, a student did not study for the final exam because he was too confident. In the end he got grade C on the exam.
Second, a woman student was too confident on her ability as a journalist, but her writing skill was mediocre. As the result, she did not land any journalist jobs.
These examples demonstrate the overconfidence effect. Thanks for listening and have a great day. 45 sec.
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Test 18
According to the reading, when a child behaves badly, he or she must be punished in a logical and consistent manner. This is called logical consequences. The professor uses two examples.
First, a girl student repeatedly drew pictures on her desk. The teacher consistently punished her by making her clean all the desks. This worked and she stopped the misbehavior.
On the contrary, a boy made noises in the class, but the teacher did not punish him in a logical manner, so he continued the bad behavior.
These examples demonstrate logical consequences. Thanks for listening and have a great day. 44 sec.
---------------------------
これでこの本の18セット終了。この韓流本はお薦めです。問題量が多く、本番に近い問題が多い。


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[ 2013/05/10 21:34 ] TOEFL | TB(-) | CM(0)

TOEFL学習記録155

How to master writing

(注意:下記の作文は私の長い勉強過程の一時期に書いたもので、使われているテンプレート、書き方などは現在使っているものと大きく違いますのでご注意ください。 勉強会でご紹介したものが現在のテンプレート、書き方です。 )

Writing Integratedの練習

Writing Integratedは時間との闘いです。テンプレートを完全にマスターし、短時間で書けるよう何回も練習しましょう。

リスニングの内容理解がIntegratedの一番重要なこと。リスニングが弱い人は、高得点にならない。教科書の模範解答の下線の項目が自分の作文に全部入っているかチェックしてほしい。Lはできるだけ各段落2文入れるように心がける。

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02
The reading passage presents three theories to corroborate an argument that the sudden disappearance of the Anasazi Indians was caused by wars with other tribes. However, the professor claims that this argument does not hold water and presents his own reasons to substantiate his contention that the lack of water caused the sudden demise of the Anasazi Indians.

The first theory described by the reading passage is that many burned sites suggest that the Anasazi Indians were conquered by other warring tribes, as it was customary for Indian tribes to burn their enemy’s sites. On the contrary, the professor casts doubt on this contention by saying that the Anasazi burned their sites themselves as ceremonies to hope to find new sites with more water sources.

The second theory identified by the reading passage is that many valuable personal items left in the sites suggest that the Anasazi Indians were either killed or had no time to take their belongings with them when attacked by enemies. Conversely, the professor contends that those personal items were simply left behind when they migrated to new locations with more water supplies.

The third theory suggested by the reading passage is that other tribes were jealous of the rich water lands, attacked the Anasazi and drove them away. On the other hand, the professor argues that the Anasazi disappeared because the increased population could not survive on the limited water supplies.

In conclusion, the reading passage presents three theories to corroborate the argument that the sudden disappearance of the Anasazi Indians was caused by wars with other tribes. However, the professor claims that this argument does not hold water and presents his own reasons to substantiate the contention that the lack of water caused the sudden demise of the Anasazi Indians.
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03
The reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate that Neanderthals were able to speak. However, the professor states these reasons are unsubstantiated and provides his own compelling reasons to corroborate that Neanderthals could not speak.

The first reason described by the reading passage is that Neanderthals had the head size 10 % larger than that of humans and must have been able to speak. Conversely, the professor says this argument is illogical because larger brain does not automatically leads to the speech capability. He states that the complexity of brain rather than the size is an important attribute to be able to speak and that the brain of Neanderthals was not complex.

The second reason identified by the reading passage is that a hyoid bone found over twenty years ago is an indication that Neanderthals were able to communicate with speech. On the contrary, while the professor agrees that the hyoid bone contributes to a wider range of tongue movement, she states that this contention does not hold water because some monkey having hyoid bones are not capable of speech.

The third reason described by the reading passage is that Neanderthals developed muscles around their stomach, which helped them to create sounds required for speech. On the other hand, the professor points out that this hypothesis is questionable because highly developed stomach muscles were not used for speech. They were rather used to control breathing so that Neanderthals could travel a long distance quickly or climb mountains easily.

In conclusion, the reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate that Neanderthals were able to speak, whereas the professor states these reasons are unsupportable and provides his own compelling rebuttals to corroborate that Neanderthals could not speak.

Allege主張する
Ludicrous ばかげた
Simply put 簡単に言うと
Concede 認める
That much is true そこまでは正しいが、
Integral to ~に不可欠
Engage in speech ~を行う
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04
The reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate that humans caused the extinction of dodos in Mauritius. However, the professor states these reasons are uncorroborated and provides his own compelling reasons to support that humans did not cause the extinction.

The first reason described by the reading passage is that Dutch settlers killed dodos for eating. Conversely, the professor says this argument is illogical because Dutch settlers hated to eat dodos due to its hard texture and bad taste. He states that the complexity of brain rather than the size is an important attribute to be able to speak and that the brain of Neanderthals was not complex.

The second reason identified by the reading passage is that deforestation by Dutch settlers drove dodos away from their habitats for laying eggs and eating fruits. On the contrary, the professor states that this contention does not hold water because a large portion of forest was still intact when the last dodo was spotted and other bird species survived.

The third reason described by the reading passage is that a disease brought by the settlers may have caused the destruction of the dodos. On the other hand, the professor points out his own theory that the population of dodos was already in decline due to natural forces like hurricanes when the Dutch settlers arrived. They may have observed the last small population of dodos that were destined to extinct anyway.
教授は、リーディングの理由に反論しているわけではなく、単に自分の別の意見を言っているので、this contention is uncorroborated because~は使えない。リスニングの論拠をよく聞いて、反論か別の意見かをよく判別すること。

In conclusion, the reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate that humans caused the extinction of dodos in Mauritius, whereas the professor states these reasons are unsupportable and provides his own compelling rebuttals to corroborate that humans did not cause the extinction.
語数を増やすために、必ずイントロをカットペーストして、一部単語を入れ替える。E-rater対策。
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05
Archaeopteryxをコピーして、ペーストできるようにしておく。時間短縮。

The reading passage presents three reasons of Mr. Hoyle to substantiate that both the London Specimen and the Berlin Specimen of Archaeopteryx are fabricated forgeries. However, the professor states these reasons are unsubstantiated and provides his own compelling reasons to corroborate that both the London Specimen and the Berlin Specimen of Archaeopteryx are actually genuine and legitimate fossils.

The first reason described by the reading passage is that Mr. Owen forged the fossil because he was a strong advocate of Darwin’s theory of evolution. Conversely, the professor says this argument is illogical because Mr. Owen was not an avid follower of Darwin. He further states that Mr. Owen wrote a paper on the very fossil and any forgery would undermine his paper and his reputation as a scientist.

The second reason identified by the reading passage is that these fossils must have been forged because details of feathers are shown on the fossils, while other fossils of Archaeopteryx do not show them. The reading further says that the fossils were fabricated by imprinting a feather on a thin cement plate. On the contrary, the professor states that this contention does not hold water because Mr. Owen was an astronomer and he did not know how to forge fossils. In addition, the professor states that German lime stone was able to capture details of feathers, as other bird fossils show details of feathers.

The third reason described by the reading passage is that one half of the fossil was perfectly preserved but the other half was not. On the other hand, the professor points out that this hypothesis is questionable because this can be explained by a bird on a hard surface covered by limestone later. On top of that, one half of the fossil was polished to make the impression clearer, of which Mr. Hoyle had no knowledge.

In conclusion, the reading passage presents three reasons of Mr. Hoyle to substantiate that both the London Specimen and the Berlin Specimen of Archaeopteryx are fabricated forgeries. However, the professor states these reasons are unsubstantiated and provides his own compelling rebuttals to corroborate that both the London Specimen and the Berlin Specimen of Archaeopteryx are actually genuine fossils.

Staunch断固たる
この問題はかなり難しいです。人の名前が複数でてくる。リスニングの内容が複雑。この問題がちゃんとできたら相当な有段者です。
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06
The reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate that the fire of 1988 in Yosemite inflicted irrevocable damage to the park and lost many tourists. However, the professor states these reasons are unsubstantiated and provides his own compelling reasons to corroborate that the Yosemite is recovering from the fire damage and recapturing the tourist.

The first reason described by the reading passage is that the fire of 1988 damaged the ecosystem of the Yosemite irrevocably. Conversely, the professor says this argument is illogical because burned materials provide more nutrition to the ground for new vegetation. In addition, burned trees allow more sunlight for new vegetation.

The second reason identified by the reading passage is that a large number of animals were trapped in the fire and killed and few animals came back to the park. On the contrary, the professor states that this contention does not hold water because new species of animals are coming back to the part to replace those killed in the fire. For example, rabbits, once very rare in the park, are dwelling in newly created vegetation.

The third reason described by the reading passage is that the park has lost many tourists permanently because of the irreversible damage done on the park. On the other hand, the professor points out that this hypothesis is questionable because the decline of tourism was partly due to the poor economic situations after the great fire. Since the mid-1990s, the number of visitors to the park has risen again.

In conclusion, the reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate that the fire of 1988 in Yosemite inflicted irrevocable damage to the park and lost many tourists. However, the professor states these reasons are unsubstantiated and provides his own convincing rebuttals to support that the Yosemite is recovering from the fire damage and recapturing the tourist.
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07
The reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate that admission fees to national parks should be abolished. However, the professor provides his own compelling reasons to corroborate that the admission fees should continue.

The first reason described by the reading passage is that national parks belong to the country and the citizen of the country. So, it is absurd to pay fees to enter their own homes. Conversely, the professor says the admission fees are required to maintain the facilities and pay salaries to people working in the parks. Without the fees, taxes have to be raised.

The second reason identified by the reading passage is that charging admission fees discourage people to visit national parks. Because of high fees, many people enjoy vacations at other places. On the contrary, the professor states that this contention does not hold water because paying admission fees actually encourage people to visit some of smaller parks. If the fees are not charged, famous national parks like Yellow Stone would be overcrowded.

The third reason described by the reading passage is that collecting fees makes visitors wait for a long time and require employees to be occupied by collecting fees rather than by engaging in other important services. On the other hand, the professor points out that the admission fees can be used to improve the quality of services and the safety of visitors. For example, park rangers can stop and keep potentially dangerous people and cars from entering the park.

In conclusion, the reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate that admission fees to national parks should be abolished. However, the professor provides his own compelling reasons to corroborate that the admission fees should continue.

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08
The reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate the benefits of fluoride use in water. However, the professor states these reasons are unsubstantiated and provides his own compelling reasons to corroborate that fluoride in drinking water is detrimental to people.

The first reason described by the reading passage is that fluoride prevents tooth decay. Studies show that fluoride reduces the rate of tooth decay and lost teeth. Conversely, the professor says this argument is illogical because most of tooth paste brands contain fluoride and there is no need to add fluoride in water. For example, some European countries like Sweden and Netherland have stopped the use of fluoride in water for over 30 years and there has been on decline in the dental health.

The second reason identified by the reading passage is that fluoride helps cleaning water quality. For example, WHO recommends developing nations to increase the content of fluoride in water to improve the water quality. On the contrary, the professor states that this contention does not hold water because if used in large amount, fluoride has harmful side effects and it dissolves lead out of the water pipes and may harm the health of people. Furthermore, the professor says that other safer water cleaning methods are available such as filtering, and using chlorine and UV light.

The third reason described by the reading passage is that fluoride helps to develop stronger bones and reduces the number of older women getting osteoporosis. On the other hand, the professor points out that this hypothesis is questionable because fluoride is reported to cause a rare bone cancer to young children. In addition, fluoride is directly deposited in bone to cause stiffness, pain, and brittle bone.

In conclusion, the reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate the benefits of fluoride use in drinking water. However, the professor states these reasons are unsubstantiated and provides his own compelling rebuttals to corroborate that fluoride in drinking water is actually harmful to people.

これはなかなか良い問題。
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09

online pharmaciesをコピぺする。

The reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate that online pharmacies should be banned from selling their products. However, the professor states these reasons are unsubstantiated and provides his own compelling reasons to corroborate that online pharmacies should be allowed to sell their products.

The first reason described by the reading passage is that many medicines sold by online pharmacies do not comply with the FDA guidelines. Particularly, some plant and animal derived medicines are not tested and approved by the FDA, therefore, they may be harmful to the users. Conversely, the professor says this argument is illogical because many herbal medicines have been used in Asian countries for hundreds of years without harming people. In addition, morning after birth control pills have been used in France safely.

The second reason identified by the reading passage is that purchasing products from online pharmacies without consulting doctors or pharmacists maybe dangerous. On the contrary, the professor states that this contention does not hold water because visiting doctors takes time and money and all information concerning drugs is available on internet. The information about drugs on the internet is mostly written by doctors and pharmacists.

The third reason described by the reading passage is that some products sold by online pharmacies are manufactured in foreign countries and their qualities are unsure. On the other hand, , the professor points out that with rising medical costs in the U.S., consumers should be allowed to select cheaper products from online pharmacies as opposed to filling the pockets of already rich pharmaceutical companies.

In conclusion, the reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate that online pharmacies should be banned from selling their products, whereas the professor states these reasons are uncorroborated and provides his own persuading rebuttals to corroborate that online pharmacies should be allowed to sell their products.
Frequenting drug stores しばしば訪れる
myriad problems 無数の
unwitting customers (情報を)知らない客
do themselves more harm than good 使用者に害を与える
masquerading as legitimate medicines 本当の薬を装って
should not deter consumers from buying online medicines. やめさせる(抑止する)
line the pockets of already wealthy companies. ポケットを金で一杯にする
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10
The reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate that Marco Polo never visited China. However, the professor claims that these reasons are uncorroborated and provides his own compelling rebuttals to support that Marco Polo actually visited China.

The first reason described by the reading passage is that there are many discrepancies among accounts of his journey. Some believe that a romance writer forged a story. Conversely, the professor states this contention is totally misunderstanding. One book was actually written by his fellow French romance prisoner. Marco Polo wrote his own book in Italian but while translated to Latin, the original was lost and then translated to Italian again, which explains differences among different manuscripts.

The second reason identified by the reading passage is that Marco Polo did not mention drinking tea in China or the Great Wall and he never learned Chinese language. The professor argues that this contention is groundless because he stayed in the northern China where tea drinking was not common. In addition, he entered China from the west side, while the Great Walls were located. Since he had a Persian translator, he did not have to learn any Chinese.

The third reason of the reading passage is that Marco Polo’s name was never recorded in Chinese documents. The professor says this argument is illogical because he called himself in Chinese or Mongolian names, or he was not considered an important person by Chinese, so his name was never mentioned in the historical documents.

In conclusion, the reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate that Marco Polo never visited China, whereas the professor claims that these reasons are uncorroborated and provides his own compelling rebuttals to support that Marco Polo actually visited China.

20分で書けるよう簡潔に書くこと。タイマーで時間を測って、17分くらいで書けるようにする。残りの3分で見直しする。
コツ:
The first reason described by the reading passage is that
Conversely, the professor states this contention is groundless because
これをコピペして2回ペーストする。

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11

The reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate that Admiral Zheng He’s Chinese fleet reached the North America in the fifteenth century. However, the professor claims this argument is uncorroborated and provides his own compelling rebuttals.

The first reason described by the reading passage is that Bimini Road, an underwater road or dock must have been built by the Chinese fleet due to its Chinese features.
Conversely, the professor claims this contention is unjustifiable because Bimini Road is made of natural lime stone formations and several of these are observed in Bahamas.

The second reason identified by the reading passage is that anchors found in California resemble those used by Chinese many centuries ago.
On the contrary, the professor claims this contention is groundless because those anchors were brought by recent Chinese immigrants who were engaged in fishing mere one hundred years ago.

The third reason pointed out by the reading passage is that the Newport Tower resembles that of Chinese light house.
On the other hand, the professor claims this contention is questionable because it resembles one of English windmills and the builder may be a local American family. In addition, according to a carbon dating, motor used to build the tower was mid-seventeenth century, not fifteenth century.

The reading passage presents three reasons to corroborate that Admiral Zheng He’s Chinese fleet reached the North America in the fifteenth century, whereas the professor claims this argument is unsubstantiated and provides his own compelling rebuttals to conclude that the Chinese fleet never reached the North America in the fifteenth century.
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12
The reading passage presents three reasons to negate the hypothesis that human settled in Monte Verde Chile 12500 years ago. However, the professor claims those reasons are uncorroborated and provides his own compelling rebuttals to conclude that humans did inhabited in Monte Verde Chile 12500 years ago.

The first reason supplied by the reading passage is that no hunting tools like spearheads and arrows were found at the site, suggesting that they were not hunters who lived so many years ago. Conversely, the professor maintains that this argument is questionable because stone and bone with meat were found, indicating they were actually hunters. They also did not have knowledge to make primitive weapons.

The second reason stated by the reading passage is that farmers disturbed the site so that the exact ages of artifacts cannot be identified. On the contrary, the professor states that this contention is questionable because farmers did not disturb the bitumen site and only touched the upper layers and the lower layers were left untouched.

The third reason supplied by the reading passage is that many artifacts were not carbon dated due to the impact of bitumen. On the other hand, the professor argues that this statement is questionable because about 25 tests with different methods were actually conducted and the majority of items were determined to be 12500 years old.

In conclusion, the reading passage presents three reasons to negate the hypothesis that the first humans inhabited in Monte Verde Chile 12500 years ago, whereas the professor claims those reasons are unsubstantiated and provides his own persuading rebuttals to conclude that humans settled in Monte Verde Chile 12500 years ago.

peat bog泥炭湿原
rendered any dating useless (made any dating useless)
lend them more accuracy (give them more accuracy)
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13
The reading passage states that the treasure information of the Copper Scrolls found in a cave near the Dead Sea is fiction and that no such treasure existed. The professor, however, states that the treasure actually existed.

First, the reading assuage states that the scrolls are written in an ancient form of Hebrew that is difficult to translate and that the scrolls contains errors, which makes the understanding of the scrolls very difficult. The professor states that such errors were made intentionally so that only limited number of people can understand the scrolls.

Second, the reading passage says that the amount of treasure described in the scrolls is so huge that it seems to be impossible that such treasure can exist. The Qumran sect that made the scrolls are ascetic people, so that huge amount of treasure does not make sense. Conversely, the professor states that correctly translated with the Egyptian counting system, the amount of treasure is much less and believable amount.

Finally, the reading claims that some scholars and treasure hunters dug various sites to find no such treasure. The professor maintains that a place indicated in the scrolls is a city in Egypt and much of the treasure has been already dug up and displayed in museums.

The reading passage states that the treasure information of the Copper Scrolls found in a cave near the Dead Sea is a fiction and that no such treasure existed in large amount. The professor, however, states that the treasure actually existed but in less amount.

buff ファン
ascetic 禁欲主義の
この問題は難しい。テンプレートでは処理できない。
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14
The reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate that a big explosion in 1908 in Siberia was caused by a gas explosion. However, the professor claims that those reasons are uncorroborated and provides his own compelling rebuttals to conclude that the explosion was caused by an asteroid exploded in the air before hitting the ground.

The first reason provided by the reading passage is that no rocks or minerals from the asteroid were found and no one witnessed an asteroid streaking across the sky.
Conversely, the professor maintains that this contention is groundless because as the asteroid exploded in the air and broken into small pieces, no one could detect small amount of asteroid remnants.

The second reason provided by the reading passage is that no impact craters were found and an area of forest 50 kilometers wide was devastated, which is more consistent with a methane explosion. On the contrary, the professor states that this argument is questionable because as the asteroid exploded up in the air, no impact craters were formed. Furthermore, the explosion in the air can explain the destruction of trees in the large area, which was also simulated by Russian scientists.

The third reason provided by the reading passage is that Tunguska area has many ponds and peat bogs that can generate a large amount of methane gas, which was ignited by a natural or human force. On the other hand, the professor points out that this theory is dubious because the amount of gas required to cause this magnitude of destruction is so huge that this area alone could not generate such a huge amount of gas. In addition, no one witnessed fires in the forest.

In conclusion, the reading passage presents three reasons to corroborate that a big explosion in 1908 in Siberia was caused by a gas explosion, whereas the professor claims that those reasons are unsubstantiated and provides his own persuading rebuttals to conclude that the explosion was caused by an asteroid exploded in the air before hitting the ground.

テンプレートで対応可能。
--------------------------------------------
15

The reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate that the life exists in Mars. However, the professor claims that these reasons are uncorroborated and provides her own compelling rebuttals to conclude that it is premature to declare the life existence in Mars.

The first reason presented by the reading passage is that the presence of methane on Mars suggests some form of living organisms replenishing the gas. Conversely, the professor claims that this assertion is groundless because methane can originate from other sources such as volcanic activities. Mars still maintains some volcanic activities.


The second reason given by the reading passage is that two samples of meteorites supposedly from Mars show the sign of bacteria. On the contrary, the professor claims that this argument is unjustifiable because those meteorites may come from the earth and the testing on bacteria has just started and the final conclusion may turn out to be a different conclusion. In addition, the professor says that two samples are too few of samples to draw an conclusion upon.


The third reason stated by the reading passage is that hydrogen, water, and underground free-flowing water suggest the possibility of life forms.
On the other hand, the professor argues that this contention is illogical because water on Mars are frozen and life forms find it difficult to survive. Furthermore, the underground free-flowing water has not been verified yet.

The reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate that the life exists in Mars, whereas the professor claims that these reasons are unsubstantiated and provides her own persuading rebuttals to conclude that it is still premature to declare the life existence in Mars.

That is a long shot. 成功確率が低いこと。
Even if true, …and that is a long shot…it will take some time before we get underground to see what is going on beneath the Martian surface.
本当だとしても…そんなことはないとは思うが…火星の地下を目で見られるのは相当先の事。
テンプレート対応可能。
---------------------------------------------------------------------
16

The reading passage presents three negative aspects of buzzers, people hired by companies to promote their products. However, the professor claims these reasons are unsubstantiated and provides her own compelling rebuttals to identify positive aspects of buzzers.

The first reason provided by the reading passage is that buzzers are dishonest because they may not like the products they are promoting and they only do so because they are financially rewarded by companies.
Conversely, the professor claims that this argument is unjustifiable because people can tell who are lying. In addition, companies hire only those who genuinely love their products and what buzzers are doing is nothing deceitful. The professor worked as a buzzer and she loved the product she was promoting.

The second reason identified by the reading passage is that buzzers make consumers less objective about the products they purchase. On the contrary, the professor argues that this contention is questionable because people do not buy a product unless they receive right information.


The third reason pointed out by the reading passage is that buzzers do harm society by causing distrust among members of society. Once they find out buzzers, they would not trust anyone. On the other hand, the professor maintains that this theory is doubtful because buzzers actually can help build trust among people by telling how good the products are and informing others of new products.

The reading passage presents three negative aspects of buzzers, whereas the professor claims these reasons are uncorroborated and provides her own persuading rebuttals to identify positive aspects of buzzers.

leave much to be desired. 改善の余地がある、ダメな点が多い
hype 誇大広告する
impart valuable information to the public 伝える 開示する
word-of-mouth marketing

リスニングの理解が難しかった。難問
------------------------------------------------------------
17

The reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate the positive aspects of running one’s own businesses. However, the professor claims that this argument is uncorroborated and provides his own compelling rebuttals to conclude that running one’s own businesses is not as easy as it sounds.

The first reason presented by the reading passage is that in corporations, your idea is not listened to or acted upon due to their multiple layers of bureaucracy. Conversely, the professor states that this contention is groundless because when you run a private business, your idea is often already patented.

The second reason pointed out by the reading passage is that corporations no longer provide job securities; tens of thousands of employees are fired by large corporations due to financial situation. On the contrary, the professor states that this argument is illogical because private businesses are even less secure. For example, nine out of ten newly opened restaurants go out of business within the first six months and owners lose all his or her personal assets do pay off debts. In addition, the professor mentions many troubles each business owner must go through such as getting permits from government, paying rents and wages.

The third reason given by the reading passage is that insurance cost are rising, pension funds are in trouble, and retirement investments become worthless when a company goes bankrupt. On the other hand, the professor states that this theory is unjustifiable because insurance costs of private business owners are even higher. If your business falls, employees will take legal actions against you.

The reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate the positive aspects of running one’s own businesses, whereas the professor claims that this argument is unsubstantiated and provides his own persuading rebuttals to conclude that running one’s own businesses is not as easy as it sounds.

テンプレートでは対応できない部分あり。

bankrupt, bankrupt
travelling down a road filled with trouble
you may lose everything, even the proverbial shirt off your back. 自分のシャツまで失う
echelon 階層
having their ideas listened to and acted upon
to make sure his ideas see the light of day
a thing in the past
in times of need
----------------------------------------------------------------
18

The reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate that the orb web of spiders is more efficient than the cobweb. The professor, however, claims that this contention is uncorroborated and provides his own compelling rebuttals to conclude that the cob set is superior to the orb web.

The first reason provided by the reading passage is that orb webs are one-dimensional and made of fine strands. Insects can be easily trapped by the webs because they cannot see the web well. Conversely, the professor states that cob webs are three-dimensional and made of stronger and dense strands of irregular patters. Once ensnared, insects cannot escape the webs.

The second reason pointed out by the reading passage is that each spider can easily build a orb web in 30 to 45 minutes due to its one-dimensional structure. This makes it easy for spiders to make a new web every day. On the contrary, the professor states that orb webs are stronger and cannot be broken easily by wind or large insects. Due to their three-dimensional structure, when one section is broken, repairing that section is sufficient.

The third reason supplied by the reading passage is that being in the center of the orb webs, spiders can easily sense when prey gets caught. On the other hand, the professor states that this argument is questionable because being in the center of webs, spiders are vulnerable to predators. In contrast, spiders can hide themselves in the dense strands of cob webs and protect themselves from enemies.

The reading passage presents three reasons to corroborate that the orb web of spiders is more efficient than the cobweb, whereas the professor claims that this contention is unsubstantiated and provides his own persuading rebuttals to conclude that the cob set is superior to the orb web.

必ずしも反論してないところは、this argument is questionable becauseを使わない。
so it can ill afford to allow any prey to escape = it cannot afford to allow any prey to escape
獲物を逃がす余裕はない
ensnared insects わなにかかった昆虫
the strands are fine enough to be invisible even in bright light, let alone at night
ensnared クモに捕えられる
----------------------------------------------------------------
19
The reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate that chimps can communicate with humans. However, the professor claims that this contention is uncorroborated and provides his own compelling rebuttals to conclude that the capacity of chimp’s communication is rather limited.

The first reason provided by the reading passage is that Lana was able to use 125 symbols on a key board and express her thoughts by pressing a series of keys. Conversely, the professor states that this argument is illogical because Lana was rather conditioned to endless repletion of same symbols.

The second reason given by the reading passage is that Lana was able to distinguish between nouns and adjectives. For example, she used the term finger and bracelet to define a ring. On the contrary, the professor states that this contention is groundless. Although she understood some basic grammar, but could not create new sentences on her own unless presented by the research team.

The third reason supplied by the reading passage is that Lana was able to answer questions from researchers, using the key board. On the other hand, the professor states that this theory is unjustifiable because those questions and answers were not in speech form but rather passive way using the key board. She could not produce her own questions and she could not communicate with other chimps, unlike human children can perform those tasks.

The reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate that chimps can communicate with humans, whereas the professor claims that this contention is unsubstantiated and provides his own persuading rebuttals to conclude that the capacity of chimp’s communication is rather limited and they cannot communicate with humans.

the most celebrated case
Or so it appeared. It appeared so.
This is much unlike human children.
少し難しい
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
20

The reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate that fish farming practices pose dangers to fish and humans. However, the professor states that this argument is uncorroborated and provides his own compelling rebuttals to conclude that fish farming is safe practices for both fish and humans.

The first reason presented by the reading passage is that as fish is confined to narrow pens, the likelihood of diseases is higher than natural environments and diseases may spread faster. Consumers also are infected by diseases by eating unwittingly infected fish. Conversely, the professor maintains that this contention is groundless because fish in natural ocean environments are also flocked together. In addition, the professor states that fish farming raises some fish that are not available in the wild.

The second reason provided by the reading passage is that fish farmers utilize chemicals to facilitate the rapid growth of fish in captivity. These chemicals may be harmful to consumers. On the contrary, the professor maintains that this claim is doubtful because chemicals are also used to raise cows and pigs. Eating fish containing less fat and healthy oils is safer than eating beef and pork having more fat. In addition, the professor states that fish in the wild is also contaminated by pollution.

The third reason given by the reading passage is that a large number of fish is caught to feed fish in captivity. This negatively affects the ocean eco systems. On the other hand, the professor maintains that this theory is questionable because Most of these fish used for raising fish farming are not the ones humans and other sea creatures eat.

The reading passage presents three reasons to substantiate that fish farming practices pose dangers to fish and humans, whereas the professor states that this argument is unsubstantiated and provides his own persuading rebuttals to conclude that fish farming is safe practices for both fish and humans.
-----------------------------------------------
21

The reading passage presents three reasons to corroborate that it is humans who are responsible for disappearance and eradication of birds. However, the professor states that this argument is unsubstantiated and provides her own compelling rebuttals to conclude that humans are not causing the disappearance and eradication of birds.

The first reason provided by the reading passage is that expanding urban areas with less green environments and more pollution are removing their habitats. Conversely, the professor claims that this argument is illogical because more green areas such as tree-lined rivers and parks are available in urban cities, supporting a large population of birds. For example, Berlin is filled with a large number of trees.


The second reason identified by the reading passage is that a large area of forest has been converted to farm lands to support higher demand of humans, which in turn deprived birds of their territories. On the contrary, the professor claims that this assertion is questionable because the earth retains a vast amount of remaining forests in Canada, Brazil and south East Asia. In addition, farming practices becoming more efficient, less and less farming area is required.

The third reason proposed by the reading passage is that insecticides are killing many birds. On the other hand, the professor claims that this theory is unjustifiable because some plants have been genetically modified to increase resistance to insects. Outside the U.S., DDT is still used to kill mosquitos to deter the spread of Malaria. This means limited number of birds would be killed by DDT, while this can save lives of humans.

The reading passage presents three human reasons to substantiate that it is humans who are responsible for disappearance and eradication of birds, whereas the professor states that this claim is uncorroborated and provides her own persuading rebuttals to conclude that humans are not causing the disappearance and eradication of birds.
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注意:上記の作文は私の長い勉強過程の一時期に書いたもので、使われているテンプレート、書き方などは現在使っているものと大きく違いますのでご注意ください。 勉強会でご紹介したものが現在のテンプレート、書き方です。

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[ 2013/05/08 09:58 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(0)
プロフィール

Andy

Author:Andy
プロフィール:

TOEIC 990点
英検1級合格二次試験100点(優秀賞)
TOEFL iBT 119点(2015年7月11日、2年間有効)

名前:Andy
年齢:59歳
学歴:University of Missouri at Rolla 工学部原子力工学科卒業
職業:技術系の通訳を30年以上やっています。

仕事柄、欧米人と仕事をすることが多く、Andyというニックネームを使っています。
北陸の田舎に住んでいます。毎週、北陸新幹線にお世話になっています。
コシヒカリを食べて育った純粋な日本人です。
韓国語、中国語は全くできません。

毎月TOEFLを受験しています。
ソラシティ、武蔵小杉、テンプル大学麻布校3階が好きな会場です。

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