TOEFL Writing Independent

Usher Writing

Usher本からWriting Independentの題材をまとめてみました。
各問題について2~3つtopic sentencesを事前に考えておけば、本番でスムーズに英作文できると思います。

1.     Government should pay more attention to the environment than health issues.

2.     In this quickly changing world, people are less happy than they were in the past.

3.     It is important to choose friends who have fun with you, than to choose friends who can help you when you need them.

4.     Many teachers assign homework to students every day.  Daily homework is necessary for students.

5.     People who do not accept criticism from others cannot be successful in group work.

6.     Regardless of circumstances, there is no reason to be impolite.

7.     Movies and television have negative effects on young people.

8.     A job with more vacation time is better than a job with high salary but less vacation time.

9.     Although many people care about the environment, the current environmental situation will not improve in the future.

10.  As society progresses, advices from grandparents to children is not as useful as it was in the past.

11.  People should work quickly and risk making mistakes, instead of working slowly and making sure that everything is correct.

12.  Moving to different countries or towns is not good because of losing old friends.

13.  When students work together on a project, they learn much more effectively than when they do the project alone.

14.  Visiting museum is the best way to learn about a country.

15.  Classmates are a more important influence on a child’s success in school than parents.

16.  Parents should encourage their children to take a part-time job.

17.  It is better to spend money on travel and vacation than to save it for future use.

1.    It is better for children to choose jobs that are similar to their parents’ than to choose very different jobs.

2.    People who move out of the native village/town are happier and more successful than those who stay all their life.

3.    Environmental problems are so complex that individuals cannot do anything about those.

4.    The people who do not accept the criticism from others cannot be successful at working in a group.

5.    Children should play sports for fun; they should not play sports for competitions or contests.

6.    The past has influence on the present and the futures.

7.    Books have affected greater on people's lives than television has.

8.    The best way to make yourself happy is to make others happy.

9.    The best way to teach responsibility to children is to make them take care of animals.

10. Improving schools is the most important for successful development of a country.

11. Government should invest more in improving internet access than improving public transportation.

12. Do you prefer to work at home with computers and telephones or to work in offices?

13. Should people get secure jobs when they become available or wait for more satisfying jobs?

14. Business people are motivated only by the desire of money.

15. Developing many different skills are better than focusing on one skill in order to succeed.

16. Professional athletes do not deserve to make as much money as they do now.

17. People try to protect the environment but it cannot be helpful under current conditions.

18. Regardless of circumstances, there is absolutely no reasons to be impolite.

19. Movie and television programs made in your own country is more interesting than those made in other countries.

20. Parents these days have more or less influence on children’s education than they did in the past.

21. Colleges and universities must do a better job preparing students for workplace.

22. Young people today are less dependent on their parents than in the past.

23. Compared to the people living in the cities, people in the rural areas can take better care of their families.

24. As the society progresses, advice from grandparents to grandchildren is not as useful as it was in the past.

25. Do you agree that today it is easier to become an educated person than it was in the past?

26. In order to improve quality of education, universities should spend more money on salaries of university professors.

27. Should children take music and art classes?

28. The best way to learn about a foreign country is to read newspapers and magazines.

29. It is more enjoyable to work three days a week or long hours than to work five days for shorter hours.

30. Do you think playing sports teaches people important lessons about life?

31. People with different levels of income or financial backgrounds cannot be friends.

32. Is the role of university professors to do the research or to educate student?

33. In this quickly changing world, people are less happy than they were before.

34. The most important characteristic of a good political or business leader is to accept the responsibility of mistakes.

35. Should we let children recognize their own misdeeds?

36. Since we are living in fast, crowded world, we should not expect others to be polite.

37. Young people nowadays have no influence on important decisions that determine the future of the society.

38. Most of the problems that influence out society will be solved within our lifetime.

39. Nowadays, the development of science and technology has caused people to live the best lives.

40. Would you use domestic products even if they are more expensive than imported ones?

41. Movies and television have negative effects on behavior of young people.

42. People should choose a university which provides them with an advantage of getting a good job after graduating.

43. Government should spend more on art museums and music than on recreational facilities such as swimming pools and parks.,

44. It is more important for the universities to improve facilities such as libraries or computer labs than to hire famous professors.

45. A job with more vacation time is better than a job with a higher salary but less time off.

46. It is important to know the events happening around the world even though it is unlikely that affect your daily live.

47. In the past, it was easier to identify what type of career or job would lead to secure, successful future.

48. One can learn a lot more about a person from the type of friends that he has.

49. It is better for governments to spend money to build new housing than to preserve historic or traditional building.

50. Although many people care about the environmental, the current environmental situation will not improve in the future.

51. When new technological devices become available, some buy them right away; others wait until many people adopt them.

52. It is more important to choose friends who have fun with you than to choose friends who can help you when you need them.

53. When students work together on a project, they learn much more effectively than when they are asked to do the prefect alone.

54. Famous entertainers and athletes deserve to have more privacy than they have now.


[ 2013/02/15 11:35 ] TOEFL | TB(-) | CM(1)








53. Most people encounter multiple instances of ordinary courtesy and good manners every day, for example, smokers asking whether anyone minds if they light up, people letting others with fewer items ahead in grocery-store lines, and freeway drivers switching lanes to accommodate faster drivers or those entering via on-ramps
54. Both courtesy and discourtesy abound in everyday life.
55. We tend to remember negative encounters with people more so than positive ones, probably because bad experiences tend to be more traumatic and sensational, if not (~だけでなく) more interesting to talk about.
56. When key corporate executives become committed to values, the regulations associated with those values become a codification of conscience rather than obstacles to circumvent.
57. Regulatory systems inherently call for legislative committees, investigations and enforcement agencies, all of which adds to the tax burden of the citizens whom these regulations are designed to protect.
58. I am partial to
59. To put the icing on the cake, さらに良いことに
60. His imagination completely outstripped that of his audience.
61. The salesman threw in a towel for good measure.
62. Even so, we should be wary of government restrictions on advertising or soliciting. Government involvement in our free pursuits is justified only to prevent substantial harm to society. When advertisements or solicitations are clearly harmful, as is obvious with much pornography on the Internet, then government should intervene to restrict such messages, particularly those directed at children. But although endless sales pitches and pleas for charity are certainly annoying, most of them are not all that damaging.
63. This is best left to consumers, who have means available to them.
64. Admittedly, the space program has produced a great many “spinoff” results that make life better in ways that have nothing to do with space. But if the nations of the world were to make as substantial an investment in medical research—or environmental protection, or marine exploration—many unforeseen but useful byproducts would certainly result. And it seems unwise to argue that we should invest huge sums of money in a project, hoping it will produce virtually unforeseen good results, particularly when the alternative is to invest the same money in projects that are certain to produce substantial benefits.
65. Another reason why an international effort is required is that other problems of an international nature have also required global cooperation. For example, has each nation independently recognized the folly of nuclear weapons proliferation and voluntarily disarmed? No: only by way of an international effort, based largely on coercion of strong leaders against detractors, along with an appeal to self-interest, have we made some progress. By the same token, efforts of individual nations to thwart international drug trafficking have proven largely futile, because efforts have not been internationally based. Similarly, the problem of energy conservation transcends national borders in that either all nations must cooperate, or all will ultimately suffer.
66. A jury in a criminal trial is good example of a group in which shared decision-making, duties, and responsibility is the most appropriate and effective way to get the job done. Each member of the jury is on equal footing with the others. While one person is appointed to head the jury, his or her function is to act as facilitator, not as leader. To place ultimate authority and responsibility on the facilitator would essentially be to appoint a judge, and to thereby defeat the very purpose of the jury system.
67. By way of contrast, a trauma unit in a hospital is a case in which one individual should assume responsibility, delegate duties and make decisions. In trauma units, split-second decisions are inherently part of the daily routine, and it is generally easier for one person to make a quick decision than for a team to agree on how to proceed. One could argue that since decisions in trauma units are typically life-and-death ones, leaving these decisions to one person is too risky. However, this argument ignores the crucial point that only the most experienced individuals should be trusted with such a burden and with such power; leaving decisions to inexperienced group members can jeopardize a patient’s very life.
68. Aside from the problems of self-interest and enforcement, environmental issues inherently involve public health and are far too pandemic in nature for individuals to solve on their own. Many of the most egregious environmental violations traverse state and sometimes national borders. Environmental hazards are akin to those involving food and drug safety and to protecting borders against enemies; individuals have neither the power nor the resources to address these widespread hazards.
69. Consider the problem of ozone depletion thought to be a result of chloroflourocarbon (CFC) emissions. When the government regulated CFC production in the U.S., corporations responsible for releasing CFC’s into the atmosphere simply moved abroad, and the global threat continued. Similarly, the Internet is a global phenomenon; regulations in one country will not stop “contamination” overall. Thus, successful regulation of Internet pornography requires international cooperation, just as successful CFC regulation finally required the joint efforts of many nations.
70. Admittedly, any global regulatory effort faces formidable political hurdles, since cooperation and compliance on the part of all nations—even warring ones—is inherently required. Nevertheless, as in the case of nuclear disarmament or global warming, the possible consequences of failing to cooperate demand that the effort be made. And dissenters can always be coerced into compliance politically or economically by an alliance of influential nations.
71. One reason for my belief is that machines have made our lives much easier than before. For example, with help of my computer, I can navigate on the Internet everyday, searching for the information I need, while my automatic washing machine is doing my laundry for me. My mobile phone connects me with my friends and my office wherever I go. I cannot image what my life would be like without all these machines and devices.
72. Another reason for my belief is that machines can do many dangerous work for us. For example, a robot bomb expert can dismantle a bomb for the police so that no one will be hurt. Other robots can work under extreme weather conditions. I believe that there will be more machines doing hazardous jobs.
73. Perhaps the best reason for my belief is that machines have opened more and more possibilities for humans. For instance, a spaceship can take us to outer space where we had never dared to go. Likewise, a submarine can bring us to the bottom of the ocean, which used to be forbidden area to humans.
74. Digital automation has brought its own brand of alienation. Computer automation, and especially the Internet, breeds information overload and steals our time and attention away from family, community, and coworkers. In these respects, digital automation tends to diminish our quality of life and create its own legion of human slaves.
75. We all have an interest in preserving our freedom and democratic way of life. At the very least, then, schools should provide instruction in the ethical and social values required for our democracy to survive—particularly the values of respect and tolerance. Respect for individual persons is a basic ethical value that requires us to acknowledge the fundamental equality of all people, a tenet of a democratic society. Tolerance of differences among individuals and their viewpoints is required to actualize many of our basic constitutional rights—including life, liberty, pursuit of happiness, and freedom of speech and religion.
76. While respect and tolerance are the minimal values that schools should teach, the list should ideally go further—to include caring, compassion, and willingness to help one another. A democracy might survive without these values, but it would not thrive. Respect and tolerance without compassion, it seems to me, breed a cool aloofness that undermines our humanity, and leaves those in the worst position to suffer more and suffer alone—an unhealthy state for any society.
77. Admittedly, schools should avoid advocating particular viewpoints on controversial moral issues such as abortion or capital punishment. Instruction on issues with clear spiritual or religious implications is best left to parents and churches. Even so, schools should teach students how to approach these kinds of issues—by helping students to recognize their complexity and to clarify competing points of view. In doing so, schools can help breed citizens who approach controversy in the rational and responsible ways characteristic of a healthy democracy.
78. The main problem with selecting a career primarily on the basis of money is that for many people to do so would be to ignore one’s personal values, needs, and larger life goals. Indeed, many people appreciate this notion when they choose their career. For example, some people join one of the helping professions, such as nursing, teaching or social work, well aware that their career will not be financially lucrative. Their choice properly stems from an overriding altruistic desire, not from an interest in financial gain. Others choose to pursue intellectual or creative fulfillment—as writers, artists, or musicians—knowing that they are trading off dollars for non-tangible rewards. Still others forego economic gain to work as full-time parents; for these people, family and children are of paramount importance in life. Finally, many people subordinate economic prospects to their desire to live in a particular location; these people may place a high value on recreation, their physical health, or being near a circle of friends.
79. Another problem with focusing primarily on money when selecting a career is that it ignores the notion that making money is not an end in and of itself, but rather a means of obtaining material goods and services and of attaining important goals—such as providing security for oneself and one’s family, lifelong learning, or freedom to travel or to pursue hobbies. Acknowledging the distinction, one may nevertheless select a career on the basis of money—since more money can buy more goods and services as well as the security, freedom, and time to enjoy them. Even so, one must strike a balance, for if these things that money is supposed to provide are sacrificed in the pursuit of money itself, the point of having money—and of one’s career selection—has been lost.
80. First of all, studying the arts and humanities can help students become better mathematicians and scientists. For example, recent studies of cognitive development show that studying music at an early age can strengthen a child’s later grasp of mathematics. And understanding philosophical concepts has helped scientists recognize their own presuppositions, and frame their central questions more accurately.
81. Another reason that the claim is suspect is that we tend to remember negative encounters with people more so than positive ones, probably because bad experiences tend to be more traumatic and sensational, if not more interesting to talk about. The news stories that the media chooses to focus on certainly support this rationale. However the fact that we remember, hear about, and read about discourtesy more than about courtesy shows neither that discourtesy is increasing nor that courtesy is decreasing. It simply shows that negative experiences leave stronger impressions and tend to be more sensational. In fact, I suspect that if one were to tally up one’s daily encounters with both types of behavior, one would conclude that good manners and courtesy are far more prevalent than the opposite behavior.
82. Undeniably, today’s professionals must work long hours to keep their heads above water, let alone to get ahead in life financially. This is especially true in Japan, where cost of living, coupled with corporate culture, compel professional males to all but abandon their families and literally to work themselves to death. While the situation here in the states (United States) may not be as critical, the two-income family is now the norm, not by choice but by necessity.
83. However, our society’s professionals are taking steps to remedy the problem. First, they are inventing ways—such as job sharing and telecommuting—to ensure that personal life does not take a backseat to career. Second, they are setting priorities and living those hours outside the workplace to the fullest. In fact, professional success usually requires the same time-management skills that are useful to find time for family, hobbies, and recreation. Third, more professionals are changing careers to ones which allow for some degree of personal fulfillment and self-actualization. Besides, many professionals truly love their work and would do it without compensation, as a hobby. For them, professional fulfillment and personal fulfillment are one and the same.
84. Good global citizenship is not incompatible with good citizenship at other levels. Consider, for example, one’s efforts as a citizen to preserve the natural environment. One particular person might, for example: (1) lobby legislators to enact laws preserving an endangered redwood forest, (2) campaign for nationally-elected officials who support clean air laws, and (3) contribute to international rainforest preservation organizations. This one person would be acting consistently as a citizen of community, state, nation and world.
85. Admittedly, motivating compliance with environmental regulations by way of penalties will serve environmental goals up to a point. The deterrent effect of these remedies cannot be denied. Yet it should not be overstated. Some businesses may attempt to avoid punishment by concealing their activities, bribing (lobbying) legislators to modify regulations, or moving operations to jurisdictions that allow their environmentally harmful activities. Others might calculate the trade-off between accepting punishment and polluting, budget in advance for anticipated penalties, then openly violate the law. My intuition is that this practice is a standard operating mode among some of our largest manufacturers.
86. Thirdly, waiting until government regulations are in place can have disastrous effects on the environment. A great deal of environmental damage can occur before regulations are implemented. This problem is compounded whenever government reaction to scientific evidence is slow. Moreover, the EPA might be overburdened with its detection and enforcement duties, thereby allowing continued environmental damage by companies who have not yet been caught or who appeal penalties.
87. In some industries, however, substantial investment in high-quality advertising simply does not make sense from a cost-effectiveness viewpoint. Pharmaceutical companies, for example, might be better off limiting their advertising to specialized publications, and focus instead on other kinds of promotional programs, such as the distribution of free samples. And widespread, flashy advertising would probably have a limited effect on overall sales for companies such as Deere and Caterpillar, whose name recognition and long-standing reputations for quality products are well established and whose customers are unlikely to be swayed by sensational ads.
88. When government pays lip service to efficiency, shrewd listeners recognize this as political rhetoric designed only to pander to the electorate.
89. First of all, dishonest or unreliable workers harm an organization in many ways. Dishonest employees impose costs on a company whether they steal on the grand or small scale; just taking a few days of unwarranted sick leave here and there can add up to significant lost productivity. And lying about progress on a project can result in missed deadlines and even lost contracts. Unreliability works the same way; if an employee cannot meet deadlines or fails to appear at important meetings, the organization will suffer accordingly.
90. In addition, coworkers who lack motivation or creativity take some of the life out of an organization. To the extent that employees simply plug along, the company will be less productive. In contrast, employees who have imagination and the motivation to implement ideas are productive and can spark those around them to greater achievement.
91. Finally, employees who cannot get along with or work well with others can as well be detrimental to the organization. The mere presence of a troublemaker is disruptive; moreover, the time such people spend on petty disagreements is time away from getting the job done successfully. In addition, those who cannot smoothly coordinate their efforts with others will end up making things more difficult for everyone else.
92. Individual success is gauged by the extent to which one reaches his important personal goals. And it takes careful planning to set goals and discover the best means of realizing them. Before hard work even begins, therefore, considerable time and effort should be spent on planning.
93. Intelligence and imagination play important roles in planning. Imagination helps one to envision new solutions to problems, and new means by which to achieve goals. Intelligence helps one research and critically evaluate the possibilities that imagination has provided. Together, imagination and intelligence can even help one avoid certain kinds of hard work, by producing more efficient ways to accomplish goals.
94. Finally, persistence is crucial to success. Sometimes, rewards do not come quickly—even when one carefully sets the goals, creatively and intelligently plans ways to achieve them, and works hard according to plan. Tradition has it, for example, that Thomas Edison made thousands of attempts to create a light bulb before he finally succeeded. In the face of countless failures, he refused to quit. In fact, he considered each failure a successful discovery of what not to do!
95. Treating employees with respect is important in all contexts. Respect, in the most basic sense, involves treating a person as equal in importance to oneself. For a manager or supervisor, this means recognizing that occupying a subordinate position does not make a worker a lesser person. And it means treating subordinates as one would want to be treated—honestly and fairly. Using threats or verbal abuse to elicit better employee performance amounts to treating a worker like the office copy machine—as an object from which to get what one wants.
96. Admittedly, competition among businesses can occasion all sorts of improved practices.もたらす
97. In conclusion, competition frequently motivates changes that are beneficial in many ways. But competition is a double-edged sword that can also result in inferior or unsafe products and dangerous working conditions for employees.
98. But taken too far, attempting to keep up with or beat competitors brings about detrimental results for a company. In some cases, companies compromise product quality by switching to inferior, less expensive materials in order to keep prices competitive. Other times, plant managers ignore important employee-safety measures just to save money. And companies are even known to trade off consumer safety in the interest of competition. Perhaps the paradigmatic case involved the Ford Pinto, where Ford management rejected an inexpensive retrofit that would have saved hundreds of lives in rear-end collisions, solely in order to shave a few dollars off the car’s sticker price, thereby enhancing the car’s competitiveness.
99. I agree generally that setting new goals in small increments above past accomplishments is a reliable path to achieving those goals. I think anyone would be hard-pressed to find fault with this advice. Nevertheless, in some exceptional instances, a more dramatic “leap-frog” approach may be more appropriate, or even necessary, to achieve a significant goal.

[ 2013/02/09 11:01 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(0)









fortuitous 偶然の、ラッキーな
forearm 前腕
metacarpal 中手骨
digit 指
p'halange 指骨
cartilaginous 軟骨性
epiphyseal 骨端の
growth plate 骨端成長板
transilluminate 光を通す
deciduous 抜け落ちる、落葉の
mastication そしゃく
weaning 離乳
dentin 象牙質
cementum セメント質

copious 豊富な、語彙が豊富な
daunting intimidating 困難な、骨の折れる
It's a daunting challenge, but it can be done.

primordial 原始の
cyanobacteria シアノバクテリア
posit 仮定する

photo'tropism 屈光性
auxin オーキシン
etiolation もやしのように長くする
e'piphytes 他の木に住む植物
leathery 革のような
bromeliad アナナス
stalk 茎(くき)
stalker ストーカー

underpinning 土台
unadorned 飾り気のない
mural 壁画
lauded 褒めたたえられた
embellished 装飾された

saltation 風邪で粒子が飛ぶ、激変
lineage 血統
equine 馬の いーくわいん
splayed 扁平した
envisage 想定する、visualize
stasis 静止状態
catastrophism 天変地位
progressive creationism 神が長い期間にわたって万物を創造した
creationism 神が天地を創造した
cladogenesis 分岐進化
cladogram 分岐図
biota 生物相
demise 崩壊、消滅、死亡

overarching 最も重要な、包括的な
epidemiology 伝染病学
lobar pneumonia 大葉性肺炎
virulent 伝染力の強い、悪性の、毒性の
avirulent 非毒性の
phagocytosis 白血球などが細菌を食べてしまうこと
necropsy 解剖
morph into 姿を変える
progenitor 先祖
protease たんぱく質分解酵素
deoxyribonuclease DNA分解酵素

acquiescence 従服
fiasco 失敗
sovereign power 統治する力
sanctity 神聖さ
feat 功績
reign 君臨
quid pro quo 見返り、代償
laissez-faire 自由放任主義の
anarchy 無政府状態
prevalent 流行っている、=common
inept 無能な

spurious 疑似、偽造、誤った
errant 逸脱した、誤った
falsified 偽造
biogenesis 生物は他の生物からのみ発生し得る
preposterous ばかげた、非常識な
atop の上
abiogenesis 生物は無機物からも発生し得る
proffer 差し出す、提案する
primeval 原始の ぷらいみーばる
glycine グリシン

irritable いらいらする rが二つ
physiology 生理学
rudimentary 原始的な、基礎的な
satiate 充分に満足させる
denigration 非難、中傷
allegorical 寓話の
raged on 勢いが増す, 続く
disposition 傾向、特徴
narrative 物語の

temporal 時間の

vascular 維管束の
perennate 多年に渡って生きる
perennial 多年草の nが二つ
waterlogged 水につかった
prominent 目立った、conspicuous
prop 支持する、支持、支柱
lenticel 皮目
respiration 呼吸
subterranean 地下にある
exudate 滲出液(しんしゅつえき)
allelopathic 毒で他の植物の成長を妨げる
punitive 懲罰的な

subjects of loyalty 臣下の忠誠心
burgeoning 急成長する

stridulate 羽根をこすって鳴く
nebula 星雲

prevalence 罹患率、普及、ubiquity
prevalent 流行している、広まっている、よく見られる
frolicking 楽しく遊ぶ
squabbling 兄弟げんか、小競り合い squabble bが二つ
nonliterality 文字通りでない、創造性
literally 文字通り、まさに

satiated 充分に満足
of one's own accod 自分の意思で

[ 2013/02/01 22:29 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(2)



TOEIC 990点
TOEFL iBT 119点(2015年7月11日、2年間有効)

学歴:University of Missouri at Rolla 工学部原子力工学科卒業



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