TOEFL100点以上を目指す社会人の方のための集中勉強会のご案内です。

一回の受講で、100点までの道のりが明確に見えるようになりますので、安心してその後の勉強を実施することができます。

TOEFL学習記録140

私の作っている珠玉の表現集の最新版
コピーをたくさん作って、トイレ、車の中においてある。
完全に暗記して英作文や口頭作文でさっと出てくるようにするのが目的。

1.     The extent to which the media should be censored for offensive language and behavior involves a conflict between the right of free speech and the duty of the government to protect its citizenry from potential harm.

2.     Although we may not have conclusive scientific evidence of a cause-effect relationship, ample anecdotal evidence establishes a significant correlation.

3.     Those who advocate unbridled individual expression might point out that the right of free speech is intrinsic to a democracy and necessary to its survival.

4.     In my assessment, the interests served by restricting broadcast media are, on balance, more crucial to the survival of a society.

5.     In sum, it is in our best interests as a society for the government to censor broadcast media for obscene and offensive language and behavior.

6.     By the same token, the problem of energy conservation transcends national borders in that all nations must cooperate or all will ultimately suffer.

7.     The main reason why an international effort is necessary is that left to their own devices, individual nations, like people, act according to their short-term motives and self-interest.

8.     Human motivation is such that without enticements such as money, status, or recognition, few people accomplish anything of value and assume responsibility for any task.

9.     Most processes can fittingly be characterized as ends in themselves, insofar as they fulfill the psychological need of people.

10.  New discoveries are often unexpectedly made during routine processes.  Such was the case with Alexander Fleming, who discovered penicillin inadvertently during a routine experiment.

11.  If you work at home, most activities can be done in the comfort of your own home.

12.  I would have missed out on a fantastic cultural experience.

13.  In sum, history informs us that personal failings are often part and parcel (n. 重要的部分) of great achievements.

14.  Personal failings and achievement are often symbiotically related.

15.  Modern politics is replete with examples.

16.  a watershed event in American politics.

17.  The new version supplanted its predecessor.

18.  While nearly everyone would agree in principle that certain efforts to preserve the natural environment are in humankind’s best interest, environmental issues always involve a tug of war (n. 拔河, 两派的激烈) among conflicting political and economic interests.

19.  Experience tells us that individuals tend to act on behalf of their own short-term economic and political interest, not on behalf of the environment or the public at large.

20.  Environmental issues are far too pandemic in nature for individuals to solve on their own.

21.  Many of the most egregious environmental violations traverse state and sometimes national borders.

22.  Environmental hazards are akin to those involving drug trafficking; individuals have neither the power nor the resources to address these widespread hazards.

23.  Tolerance of differences among individuals and their viewpoints is required to actualize many of our basic constitutional rights including life, liberty, the pursuit of happiness, freedom of speech and religion.

24.  Respect of individual persons is a basic ethical values that requires us to acknowledge the fundamental equality of all people, a tenet of a democratic society.

25.  People should be able to own guns, but the problem lies in the fact that people want to use 18th century legislation to defend the use of 21st century weapons.

26.  These men view their jobs as little more than a means of subsidizing the activities that manifest their true selves.

27.  Company-sponsored events provide opportunities for employees to bond with one another in ways that translate into better working relationships.

28.  Employees who are too aloof may be resented by coworkers who perceive them as arrogant, unfriendly or uncooperative.

29.  In the final analysis, employees should strike a careful balance when they mix their personal lives with their jobs.

30.  Although there are some cases in which bringing one’s personal life to the job may be counterproductive, for many reasons it is a good idea to inject small doses of personal life into the workplace.

31.  Something that I find startling and confusing about modern society’s collective moral compass is that we can clearly recognize the disordered mindset of someone with an eating disorder, but completely fail to make the same recognition when we consider another biological function: sex.

32.  Microsoft has been enjoying a lion’s share for more than 10 years.

33.  A murderer will use a knife, a bat, pretty much anything at his disposal.

34.  Although the speaker’s position is not wholly insupportable, far more compelling arguments can be made for holding businesses to higher ethical standards than those required by the letter of the law (法律的字面意义, 法律条文).

35.  On the one hand, two colorable(deceptive) arguments can be made for holding business only to legal standards of conduct.

36.  Limited accountability is consistent with the “buyer beware (小心, 谨防) principle that permeates our laws of contracts and torts ([]民事侵权行为), as well as our notion in civil procedure that plaintiffs carry the burden of proving damage.

37.    In other words, the onus should be on consumers to protect themselves, not on companies to protect consumers.

38.  On the other hand, several convincing arguments can be made for holding business to a higher ethical standard.

39.  First, in many cases government regulations that protect consumers lag behind advances in technology.  

40.  A new marketing technique made possible by Internet technology may be unethical but nevertheless might not be proscribed by the letter of the laws which predated the Internet.  

41.  Enforceability might not extend beyond geographic borders.

42.  Moral principles form the basis of government regulation and are, therefore, more fundamental than the law.

43.  mired in a lengthy recession

44.  {ふきょう}mired in a protracted slump

45.  CommCCommonCommon people wanted to bring the art to their doorstep.

46.  We humans wanted to take matters into our own hands.

47.  But the structure does not do justice to its significant benefits.

48.  Weeds outcompete flowers and crops for precious soil and water resources.

49.  I know that every marriage - and every relationship for that matter - has its ups and downs.

50.  When you drive to the park, forest, or anywhere else for that matter, your vehicle picks up weed seeds.

51.  Roads present animals with unnatural obstacles.

52.  Animals rid themselves of extra fur which could cause their bodies to overheat in hot summer conditions.

 

 

53.  Most people encounter multiple instances of ordinary courtesy and good manners every day, for example, smokers asking whether anyone minds if they light up, people letting others with fewer items ahead in grocery-store lines, and freeway drivers switching lanes to accommodate faster drivers or those entering via on-ramps

54.  Both courtesy and discourtesy abound in everyday life.

55.  We tend to remember negative encounters with people more so than positive ones, probably because bad experiences tend to be more traumatic and sensational, if not (~だけでなく) more interesting to talk about.

56.  When key corporate executives become committed to values, the regulations associated with those values become a codification of conscience rather than obstacles to circumvent.

57.  Regulatory systems inherently call for legislative committees, investigations and enforcement agencies, all of which adds to the tax burden of the citizens whom these regulations are designed to protect.

 




[タグ未指定]
[ 2013/01/19 22:21 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(9)

TOEFL学習記録139

TOEFL Speaking Task 6 の練習を続けます。

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6-1
The professor explains two ways domesticated animals were used as food sources in ancient times.
First, each family kept several goats. When they want to eat meat, they could kill a goat to obtain meat immediately and conveniently.
Second, they produced secondary products from milk of goats, such as cheese and yogurt. This way, they addressed the problems of food shortage.
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6-2
The professor explains two adaptations of red wood to survive for a long time.
First, red woods release a chemical toxic substance. This functions as a pesticide to kill harmful insects and protect red woods.
Second, red woods have deep root systems. Deep roots not only help them obtain nutrients and water from the ground but also provide structural support to them, so that the trees would not fall down during strong storms
---------------------------------------------
6-3
The professor explains two ways ants transport water to their nests.
First, each ant move a single droplet of water to the nest. As the number of ants of each nest is significant, this is a effective method of transporting water.
Second, ants can use a water container such as a feather to gather enough water, and transport a feather filled with water at once.
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6-4
The professor explains two benefits of wild fires.
First, wild fires provide animals with new habitats. Take woodpeckers for example. They find new homes in burned branches.
Second, wild fires burn everything on the ground and provide a new ground for growing new grasses. Often, new grasses are more nutritious and deer and other herbivores love to eat them.
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6-5
The professor explains two ways insects survive winter.
First, a species of butterfly opens up its wings to face the sun to absorb as much thermal energy as possible.
Second, a kind of fly freezes itself before the winter and unfreezes when the spring comes.
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6-6
The professor explains two ways ants secure foods they found.
First, when an ant finds a food that is too heavy for him to carry, he will go back to the nest to ask for others to help. Before leaving the food, the ant releases chemical substance on the food to deter other animals.
Second, ants place small stones and pebbles around the food so that other animals cannot access the food.
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6-7
Domesticated animals
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6-8
The professor explains two ways to protect the environment from tourists.
First, tourists should walk on trails only so that they are segregated from natural environments.
Second, the number of tourists should be limited and each group should be accompanied by a guide.
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6-9
Individual animals perform activities to bring benefits to the whole group. This is called social cooperation. The professor explains two examples.
First, some deer watch for predators while other deer feed on foods. They take turns so that each have some time for feeding.
Second, when a bee finds a food source, it goes back to the nest and performs a special dancing indicating others the direction and the distance to the food source.
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6-10
The professor explains two particular behaviors of monkeys living in the rain forests.
First, monkeys hunt for foods individually instead of a group.
Second, while hunting, monkeys emit special sounds, so that they do not encounter other monkeys and they can avoid unnecessary fighting with others.
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6-11
The professor explains mixture flying birds. Two birds fly together. One is watching for predators, while the other looks for foods. Chichi and Woodie birds are such examples.
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6-12
The professor explains two examples of human memories.
First, a person drove away from his house. In a few minutes, he forgot where he was going to.
Second, a person added water in a coffee maker. Then, a telephone call interrupted. He though he started the coffee maker, but he actually forgot to press the start button.
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6-13
The professor explains two type of sounds meerkats make.
First, when a bird attacks meerkats, they make one sound to alert others to escape in the ground.
Second, when a snake intrudes into their nest, they make another sound to intimidate the snake.
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6-14
The professor states that female animas with children are more brave than those who do not have children. He explains the result of an experiment to support this argument. Two jars containing foods one with a lid and the other without a lid were placed in front of two mice, one with children and the other without children. The one with babies entered both jars, while the mouse without children only entered the open jar. This experiment proves that animals with children are more brave than those without children.
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6-15
Same as 6-15
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6-16
Some birds fly in a flock, so that one bird watches for predators, while others look for foods. Chi-chi birds and woodpeckers fly in a flock. One of them is a guard watching for any approaching predators, while other birds search for foods.
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6-17
Companies use two types of slogans in advertisements.
First, they use company’s slogan to promote positive images of the company, so that consumers assume all product of this company are good.
Second, they use a slogan of specific product. They advertise special feathers of the product, so that consumers are attracted to the specific product.
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6-18 Pass.
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6-19
The professor explains two traits of marine animals to help them stay submerged at a certain water depth.
First, sharks have fins to give a certain lift, so that sharks can maintain the same water depth.
Second, a pike has bladders containing air. These provide buoyancy to stay at a constant water depth.

Spell: buoy, buoy, buoyancy, buoyancy, buoy,
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6-20
The professor explains two benefits of eco-tourism.
First, those participate in an eco-tour stay away from cars or busses. Instead, they walk not to pollute the environment.
Second, they try to repair damaged environment. For example, they plant trees to restore the forest.
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6-21
The professor explains how negative logs would affect negatively the performance of companies.
First, a dark logo of a tooth paste gives consumers an negative image that the use of the toothpaste will make their teeth darker.
Second, an old-fashioned logo may give an impression that the product is also outdated and behind the recent trend.
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6-22
The professor explains two effects of the railroads in America.
First, thanks to the railroads, producers were able to sell their products across the nation. Take a watch maker as an example. Before the railroads were available, the company was able to sell their watches to only limited number of cities. After the expansion of the railroads, their market place expanded nationwide.
Second, tanks to the railroads, many factories were built where natural resources were not available. For example, as coals can be transported to any places, people were able to build factories at more locations.
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6-23
The professor explains two insects that can breathe under the water.
A water scorpion, for example, has a breathing tube like a snorkel that allows it to breathe while half of the body is under water for searching foods.
A diving beetle retains air in the hind legs when diving into the water. In the water, it breathes out of this air trapped in the hind legs.

Spell: beetle, beetle, beetle
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6-24
The professor explains two ways ants bring water into their nest.
First, each ant carries a droplet of water. As the number of ants of a nest is significant, they can collect a fair amount of water. However, it is labor and time intensive activity.
Second, they place a water trapping object like a feather outside the nest during the night to absorb water. In the next morning, they bring in the feather into the nest.
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6-25
When facing a problem, people are often able to resolve the problem by looking at the issue from other perspectives. This is called lateral view. The professor uses one example of his brother who owns and manages a hotel. He received complaints that the elevator is too slow. He consulted the manufacturer, but the modification to the elevator was too expensive. One of his employees suggested installing a TV so that gusts would not feel the waiting time is too long.
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6-26
The professor explains two ways herbivores digest grasses.
The first is mechanical method. Take rabbits for example. They use front teeth to break grasses into smaller pieces to aid the digestion.
The second is chemical method. Cows for example use acid in stomach to digest grasses into absorbable nutrients.
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6-27
The professor explains two negative impacts of human interventions on the underwater species.
First, building canals connecting sea water and fresh water systems will negatively impact the ecological balance. Specifically, new species from the sea intrude into the fresh water system and may significantly reduce the fresh water species.
Second, cutting trees would affect the temperature of the water, thus negatively affect the underwater ecology. Specifically, changes in water temperatures would affect the oxygen content of the water, thus affecting the lives of underwater species.


Spell: species, species, species
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6-28
The professor explains two methods to keep a society stable.
The first method is called unification. Those who share the same jobs, interests, and hobbies get together and form groups.
The second method is called collaboration. Those who have different jobs and functions must depend on one another in order to maintain a society. A society is only stable when each member assists other members.
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6-29
The professor explains two ways for archeologists to decide where to dig to find ancient sites.
First, they look for a particular feature of the landscape. For example, in New Zealand, ancient people lived in high elevations such as hills, so archeologists look for hills as potential archeological sites.
Second, they look for a particular plant. For example, ancient people planted banana nut trees and the trees often continue to grow in the area. So, archeologists dig where the banana nut trees are growing.

Spell: New Zealand, New Zealand
---------------------------------
6-30
The professor explains two types of social groups, dependent and independent group.
First, in a dependent social group, everyone depends on each other. Take elephants for example. They always help one another. When one gets sick, other members help the sick by caring and providing foods.
Second, in an independent social group, each member is independent of others. Take fish for example, they do form a school, but each member is not dependent on others.
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6-31
The professor claims that female animals with babies are more brave then those without babies. He proved this by an experiment.
Two jars containing food were prepared. One jar had a lid, so that one cannot see inside, while the second jar had no lid, so one can see the food inside. Two female mice, one with babies and the other without were tested. One with babies entered both jars, but the other mouse without babies only entered the jar without a lid. This proves that mothers take more risks than non mothers.
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6-32
The professor explains two ways people fill in a memory gap.
First, people fill in an assumed or wrong information in a memory gap. For example, a person witnessed an car accident claims that the driver was talking on the phone or he did not use the direction signal, although these are not true.
Second, people fill in a misguided information in a memory gap. For example, a person memorizes a telephone number correctly initially. However, after hearing another number from his friend, he memorizes a wrong mumber.
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6-33
Negative impact on fish by humans
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6-34
Two methods to make a society stable.
------------------------------
6-35
Mothers are more brave.
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6-36
The professor explains two examples of how packaging improved sales of products.
First, a new packaging material increased the sale. Take milk packaging for example. Plastic containers replaced many glass bottles. Plastic containers are easier to carry and as a result the sale of milk improved.
Second, a new packaging design increased the sale. The package size of milk used to be bigger than that of juice, so more people bought juice. Then, a milk producer designed a smaller package for milk, which boosted the sale of milk.
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6-37
Memory
She drove out for a destination. After a few minutes, she realized that she forgot something at home.
She added water to a coffee maker, interrupted by a telephone call, expected the coffee is ready, actually forgot to press the start button.
-----------------------
6-38
The professor explains factors to be considered for selecting optimum sites for observatories.
First, an ideal site for an observatory should be away from light sources.
Second, the atmosphere should be dry. A high humidity obscures the lens of telescopes.
In sum, a desert away from cities is the ideal location for observatories.
---------------------------------
6-39
Ecotourism
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6-40
The professor explains two ways fish can ascend in the water.
First, fish inflates a bladder by injecting more oxygen into the bladder. By inflating the bladder, the overall density of fish decreases, thus increasing the buoyancy.
Second, some fish use fins to ascend in the water. Take sharks and rays for example. They use fins like airplanes glide up in the water.

Bladder 浮き袋、膀胱
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6-41
Requirements for observatories.
Being way from city lights
Dry atmosphere
Sunny everyday.
------------------------------------
6-42
Negative effects of advertisements on the environment
Advertisement of kitchen papers. More consumption of papers negatively affects the environment.
Billboards negatively affect the environment and the natural beauty.
---------------------------
6-43
Factors to be considered to select an archeological digging site.
Land feature such as hills
Particular plant
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これで約80問やったので、Task 6の練習を終了します。

SpeakingのTask4, Task6は、非常に難しいです。
いくら練習しても本番でうまくいくとは限りません。
高度のリスニングの力、メモを上手にとる能力、要点をまとめる能力、話す能力、総合的な英語力が試されます。

Task4+ Task6 で4点もらえる人は相当な英語の使い手と思って間違いありません。

今後とも定期的に今回のようなTask4+ Task6 の集中訓練をやっていきたいと思います。



[タグ未指定]
[ 2013/01/18 11:27 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(11)

TOEFL学習記録138

Actual test speaking 1
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Test 13
The professor explains two features when a company develops a new product.
First, the product should be easy to use. Take a ketchup glass bottle, for example. Often ketchup won’t come out or a large amount comes out at once. So the company developed a squeezable plastic bottle. Now a right amount of ketchup comes out.
Second, the product should be attractive to consumers. Take a cookie container, for example. A company developed a tin box with beautiful paintings on it. Customers love this because they can use the box as a decoration after eating cookies.

Ketchup would come out in too great an amount.
Take cookie container as an example.
This makes customers more likely to buy the products in the first place since they can get another use out of them.
-----------------------------------------------------------
Test 14
The professor explains two types of defenses used by animals.
The first is physical defense. Take walking sticks for example. They blend in tree branches so that predators cannot locate them. Grasshoppers detach their legs to escape from predators.
The second is chemical defenses. Stinkbugs release bad smell substance to deter predators. Bees and hornets have stingers to inject toxin to predators.
These examples demonstrate defenses by animals.

Predators think of insects as tasty treats.
Insect physical defenses come in a variety of forms.
Awful-smelling chemicals, awful, awful, awful, awful, awful
The smell is so intense that it drives predators away, thereby saving the stinkbug’s life.
Typing practice: awful, awful, away, away, away, awful
Environmental problems are akin to drug trafficking: individuals have neither the power nor the resources to address the problems.
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Test 15
The professor explains two animals that help keep soil healthy.
First, earth worms eat soil, grind organic matters, and release them as nutrients into soil. They also release sticky material to make soil compact. Furthermore, they create gaps in soil for air and water retention.
Second, elephants eat a large amount of vegetation and release about 100 kg per day of manure that give nutrients such as nitrogen into soil and improve the soil productivity.

Spell: Retention, retention, retention, retention, retention, retention, attention,
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Test 16
The professor explains two kinds of defenses used by animals.
The first is active defenses. Those animals having claws, teeth, and horns fight against predators. They do not have to run away from predators. For example, bulls and rhinos have horns, and cats, wolves, and bears have claws and sharp teeth to fight against predators.
The second is passive defenses. Deer and antelopes flee at fast speed when faced with a predator. Grass snakes and possums play dead. When they spot a predator, they roll over and play like they are dead. Once the predator departs, they rise and escape.

Spell: rhinoceros, rhinoceros, rhinoceros, rhinoceros, rhinoceros, rhinoceros, opossum, opossum, opossum, opossum,フクロネズミ
Those animals stand their ground and fight. 一歩も引かず戦う
I intend to stand my ground. 譲歩するつもりはありません。
They flee at the first sight of danger.
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Test 17
The professor explains two countermeasures farmers use to prevent the soil erosion.
First, farmers plant crops with deep root systems. Deep roots anchor the soil and prevent the soil from being blown away by strong winds. Tomato and broccoli are good examples.
Second, farmers establish various barriers such as line of trees to block winds. Mulch and plastic sheets are used to cover the top surface of the soil. Stone walls and ditches are used to control the water erosion of the soil.
These examples demonstrate effective soil erosion prevention measures.


Mulch  木くずなどで土地の表面を覆うこと
Spell: erosion, erosion, erosion, erosion, erosion
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Test 18
The professor explains two adaptations of animals living in mountain areas.
First, animals have thick fur to withstand the cold climate and strong winds. Take mountain goats for example. They grow thick fur during winter and shed it during summer.
Second, animals have specialized legs and hooves. For example, big horn sheep have large hooves and strong legs, so that they can move easily in rocky mountain surfaces without slipping or falling.
These examples demonstrate adaptations of animals living in high altitudes.

Hoof ひずめ、hooves
They must be able to negotiate the rocky landscape.
The thick fur protect it from the elements such as snow and wind.
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これでこの本の18セット終了。合計で42セット終了。合計で70セットまで行きたい。

[タグ未指定]
[ 2013/01/17 16:30 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(0)

TOEFL学習記録137

Actual test speaking 1

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Test 6
The professor explains two animals that perform group feeding.
First, lions are predators and form a group to attack a prey. They corner a prey, kill it and eat it together.
Second, deer is a prey and they live together to eat plants. While some deer watch predators, other deer eat plants. Then they rotate the roles, so that everyone can have chances of eating.

Lions live in prides. 群れ
Many preys are faster than lions, so they can elude a single lion.
Elude the press 報道陣をかわす、から逃げる
This enables each deer to spend an optimal amount of time feeding while only having to be on guard for a short time.
---------------------------------------------
Test 7
The professor explains two plants that have aerial roots, that is, roots above ground.

First, mangrove trees grow in coastal areas and they have aerial roots. There are two functions of the aerial roots. One is to stay away from salinity of sea water, and the other being able to absorb nutrients by taking gas from air.
Second, maze is a kind of corn plant which has both normal underground roots and additional aerial roots called brace roots. Maze has a thin and tall stem loaded with corn, so the brace roots provide support to the long stem.

Fully laden car (loaded car)
Laden with corn コーンの荷物を積んだ
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Test 8
The professor explains two kinds of adaptations by Arctic animals.
First, animals have protective layers to keep them warm. Take bears for example. They have two layers of protection, one is fat and the other being fur to protect them from cold climate. Birds have fat and feathers to protect them from coldness.
Second, animals have special body traits to protect them from cold temperatures. Fox and hare have small round bodies with short legs. The small body helps protect critical internal organs and shorter legs help reduce the heat loss due to their smaller surface area.

The fat and fur act like insulation as they keep out the cold while retaining the heat the body generates.
Keep out the cold 寒さを遮る
Keep out dusts
Keep out drafts
Keep out the sun 遮る
It grows thick feathers, even on its extremities.
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Test 9
When a company is in financial troubles, the professor explains two actions that can be taken to reduce costs and improve sales.
First, the company can perform a downsizing, which is to reduce the number of employees or eliminating some divisions. This way, the company may be able to reduce costs and become profitable again.
Second, the company can offer discounts on its products and services. As the price becomes lower, customers may start buying the product again and the company can regain a higher sales volume. As the original price includes a high markup, the discount will not result in a loss and the company can maintain a small profit by increasing the sales volume.

Downsizing has become the go-to strategy of many companies upon suffering financial difficulties.
Several workers at each department are let go. 解雇される
Most companies give their products high markups over the basic production. 利幅、値上げ
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Test 10
The professor explains two eye positions of birds and their advantages.

First, predator birds such as hawks and falcons have their eyes in the front of heads. They can see far distance and have better depth perception. This helps them to locate a prey from high in the air and dive to the prey easily.

Second, prey birds have eyes on the sides of the heads. This way, they can see predators coming from the sides or from behind. However, their view to the front is poor, and they compensate for this by moving their heads.

---------------------------------------------------
Test 11
The professor explains two animal species taking advantages of wet lands.

First, sharks come to wetlands to lay eggs, so that baby sharks can feed and grow without being attacked by predators of open oceans.

Second, sandpipers come to wetlands to feed and rest. They migrate long distance every season. Wetlands provide them with foods such as insects and worms and also resting places prior to moving to the next destinations.

Invertebrate 無脊椎動物
Vertebrate 脊椎動物
Wet lands protect young sharks from the dangers that lurk in the open ocean. Lurk in ~に潜む
Once they are more mature, they head out to the ocean.
Once full and rested, they continue with the next stage of their journey.
Continue with the next stage of the project
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Test 12
The professor explains two examples of mutualism between ants and trees.
First, acacia ants and acacia trees. The trees provide nectar to ants, while the ants provide soldiers to protect trees from other enemy insects. Ants also eat other plants nearby, so that trees can receive more sun light.
Second, lemon ants and Duroia hirsute trees. The ants release acid to kill all other plants, resulting in a large area of only this plant. This is called devil’s garden. In return, the trees provide shelter and foods to the ants.

Herbivores herbivores herbivores vores herbivores
Carnivores carnivores carnivores vores carnivores スペルが難しい
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[タグ未指定]
[ 2013/01/16 11:29 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(0)

TOEFL学習記録136

Actual test speaking 1

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Test 2

The professor explains two types of feathers loons have to keep them warm and dry in winter.
The outer feathers give colors and shapes of loons and function as keeping the inner feathers and the skin dry as they repel water. They also function as a diver’s suit when loons dive into water to catch fish.
The inner feathers are called down feathers. They are soft and fluffy and function as thermal insulator to keep the loons warm.

Crustaceans 甲殻類
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Test 3
The professor explains two types of human immune systems to protect our bodies from pathogens.
The inner immune systems include our skin and mucus. The skin provides a shell to stop pathogens entering our bodies. The mucus covers our respiratory system from throat to lung and trap pathogens.
The outer immune systems include white cells that find and kill pathogens. The digestive track also kill pathogens by using acids and bacteria.

There are two parts to the human immune system.
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Test 4
The professor explains two ways animal change their fur according to seasons.
First, bears, rabbits, and cats have thick layer of fur during winter to survive in cold climate. In summer, they shed fur to prevent overheating. As winter approaches, they grow thick fur again.
Second, rabbits change the color of fur to escape from predators. In summer, the fur is brown to blend in woods. In winter, the fur changes to white to blend in snow, so that predators cannot spot them easily.

Yet in places further south where the seasons and weather conditions differ, the fur of many animals changes in response to the varying conditions.
Animals rid themselves of extra fur which could cause their bodies to overheat in hot summer conditions. Rid A of B.
This lets them more easily camouflage themselves in the snow.
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Test 5
The professor explains two types of playing by children.
The fist one is associative play. Children play freely without rules and goals. All ages of children play in this way once they develop motor and cognitive skills. For example, two children in a sand box with some toys play freely as they please and do whatever comes to mind.
The second type is called cooperative play. Children play together to achieve a goal under some rules. They learn how to cooperate and interact with other kids. Children above age two perform this kind of play.

Children do as they please and do anything that their imaginations come up with.
Doing whatever comes to mind.
Sports and board games are prime examples of activities that involve cooperative play.
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[タグ未指定]
[ 2013/01/15 12:25 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(0)

TOEFL学習記録135

Usher speaking


Test 11
The professor explains two benefits of eco-travel.
The first benefit is to reduce impact on environment. For example, participants try to walk or ride on animals instead of using cars. They also do other beneficial activities such as planting trees, protecting animal habitats, and giving financial support to local people.
The second benefit is to raise awareness of participants to environmental issues. They learn how to respect nature, culture and local people, what is good or bad for nature and take measures so that future generations can experience nature without being touched by humans.
-----------------------------------------------
Test 12
The professor explains two types of information based on which customers decide which products to purchase.
The first one is intrinsic or direct information of products. Take the color of a fruit juice, for example. Consumers assume that one juice with a good color would be tasty. Often, expected quality matches experienced quality.
The second type is extrinsic information or indirect information of products such as reputation, price and packaging of products. In this case, expected quality does not necessarily match experienced quality.


Consumers would buy fruit juice in fancy bottles because they assume the one in pretty bottles to be of better quality.
-----------------------------------------------------
これでUsherの12問が終了。Usherの解答例のまとめ方はすばらしい。なかなかこれほどすっきりとまとめられる人はいないと思う。このレベルを目標に、練習を続けたい。
---------------------------------------------------
Actual test speaking 1


引き続きTOEFL MAP ACTUAL TESTの18問に挑戦。
-------------------------------------------------
Test 1
The professor explains two negative impacts of roads on ecology.
First, roads and cars can carry weeds to new locations. For example, a car can carry seeds from a forest to other new locations, and weeds grow in new locations and may disturb the local ecology.
Second, roads create barriers for animal migrations. Take pronghorns for example. They are reluctant to cross roads and my die due to starvation. Other animals such as snakes, frogs, and porcupines can cross roads without problems but may get hit by cars when crossing.

模範解答は長すぎて、60秒では無理。
Weeds outcompete flowers and crops for precious soil and water resources.
I know that every marriage - and every relationship for that matter - has its ups and downs.
When you drive to the park, forest, or anywhere else for that matter, your vehicle picks up weed seeds.
Roads present animals with unnatural obstacles.
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[タグ未指定]
[ 2013/01/14 10:44 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(2)

TOEFL学習記録134

Usher speaking

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引き続き、Speakingの難関Task6の練習。ETSの公式本より本番に近いUsherの超模擬試験本での練習です。

Strategy
The professor explains two reasons for the success of the Roman Empire.
First, they had far more advanced technologies than others. Take the use of concrete, for example. This made possible to construct arches and large structures like bridges connecting all roads leading to Rome.
Second, they had the underground water systems called aqueducts. They provided the Romans with the constant supply of uncontaminated water, which was protected from enemies.
These examples explain two reasons for the success of the Roman Empire.

Aqueducts 水路
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Test 1
The professor explains how animals can adapt to high altitudes by giving two examples.
First, mountain goats have two-layer fur coat to protect from cold temperature and strong winds. They shed the outer layer during summer. They also have strong front legs to aid climbing steep slopes.
Second, big horn sheep has cloven hoof or separated foot that help them live in steep cliffs to escape from predators. In addition, their feet have soft and spongy structure which enables them to live on slippery surfaces of mountain cliffs.
These examples demonstrate how animals survive in high altitudes.

Hoof ひづめ
Cloven hoof割れたひづめ
Forelimbs 前足
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Test 2
The professor explains how play behaviors help young animals survive in the wild by giving two examples.
First, a baby bird practices picking up a feather over and over again, so that they can prey on foods in the future when it becomes an adult.
Second, a baby monkey practice moving from one tree to another, so that they can build up muscle and speed to be able to move quickly and possibly escape from predators.
These are good examples of how baby animals’ play behaviors help their survival in the future.

Nestlings ひな
Inconspicuously 眼にははっきり見えないが、目立たないが
This motion accustoms monkeys to ~ 慣れさせる
Agility敏しょう性
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Test 3
The professor explains two types of feathers of loons and their functions.
First, contour feathers are outer layer feathers, and they are tightly packed and coated with special oil, so they never get wet and lose body temperature by evaporation.
Second, down feathers between the skin and contour feathers are like cotton, containing a lot of air inside and function as insulating material to protect from cold temperatures. They also aid loons to float in the water.

Plumage 羽根
Preventing water from seeping through
But the structure does not do justice to its significant benefits. 構造だけではその良さを十分説明できない。
We should do justice to his effort 彼の努力を正当に評価するべきである。
Buoyancy 浮力buoyancy buoy ブイ
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----------------------------------------------
Test 4
The professor explains how animals cooperate to defend against predators by giving two examples.
First, muskoxen form a line against a single predator to intimidate. Against multiple predators, males form a circle facing enemies with babies and females inside the circle.
Second, when a mocking bird spots a fox, it alerts other birds and intimidate the fox. In the meantime, other birds attack the fox from behind. The mocking birds have other ways of offending off predators as well.

Muskoxen ジャコウウシ
Bovines ウシ科の動物
To increase survivability and the chances of warding off, 追い払う
Ward off colds, ward off creditors,
The goal of mobbing is to fend off the predator.
While the fox is preoccupied, 気を取られている間に
Defecating ウンチを落とす
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Test 5
The professor explains two examples of group huntings.

First, several lions encircle a herd of zebras and attack the one closest to them. As lions do not have stamina, they try to hunt quickly.
Second, honey guide bees are too weak to break a bee hive, while badgers cannot see well. Honey guide bees lead a badger to a honey hive. The badger breaks the bee hive and eat honeycomb and the birds eat the remaining. This is called mutualism, meaning two different species help each other.

この問題は本番ででました。
----------------------------------------------------------------
Test 6
The professor explains two ways to make sculptures, subtractive and additive sculpturing.

Subtractive sculptures are made by chipping away solid materials such as woods and marbles. This is more difficult process, because once pieces are chipped away, it is not possible to put them back. Pieta by Michelangelo is a famous example of subtractive sculpting.
Additive sculptures are made by molding or shaping softer materials such as cement and clay. Artists have more freedom, because the shape can be changeable. A famous example is LOVE by Robert Indiana.

Sculptures come in a variety of forms.
This exemplified by Greek and Roman statues.
Modern art installation
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Test 7
The professor explains why animals change fur color by using two examples.
Arctic foxes change their fur color to white during winter and to brown during summer to be able to approach preys without being noticed.
Snow shoe hares change their fur color to hide from foxes, but unlike foxes, white fur grows from different locations of the skin and they are hollow and function as heat insulator.

Biochrome 生体色素
Follicle毛包
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Test 8
The professor explains two advantages of subsurface locomotion, that is, swimming in the sand. He uses a lizard called sandfish as an example.
First, Sandfish can control its body temperatures by submerging into the sand. The hotter the temperature, the deeper they dive into the ground.
Second, they can easily catch preys. In the desert, as there are no high vantage points in the desert, they cannot use eyes to find insects. Instead, they hide under the ground, sense vibrations from insect, and catch them.


This impediment becomes even worse when your prey is tiny insects which are hard to notice in the first place.
-------------------------------------
Test 9
The professor explains the intelligence of ants by giving two food harvesting techniques.
First, worker ants, when they find a food source, they release pheromone so that other ants can locate it. If the food is found by another species, they release another kind of pheromone to confuse them or call warrior ants to fight with them.
Second, ants place small stones around entrances of rival colonies. This gives two advantages. While rivals are fixing the entrances, ants can secure more foods, and also they can avoid fighting with rivals.

Pheromone
Pheromone
Hormone
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Test 10
The professor explains two reasons why bats hang upside down.
First, bats hide themselves from predators. During day, bats sleep in a secluded area such as caves, so that predators cannot reach them.
Second, they hang to take off easily. Bats cannot take off from the ground because their front legs are too weak. Being hang upside down, they are ready to fly and escape from predators.


Bats cannot take off from the ground because wings do not produce enough lift to launch them from a dead stop.
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メモをしっかり取って、20秒の間に、言う必要のないメモにバツ印をつけ、残ったメモをもとに冷静に60秒喋る。リスニング能力、まとめ能力がないとTask6に対応できない。
Task 4 & 6は本当に素晴らしいテストだと思う。
Task 4 & 6にしっかり対応できる人はかなりの英語の達人と思って間違いない。


[タグ未指定]
[ 2013/01/13 10:19 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(0)

TOEFL学習記録133

Hackers Speaking Actual Test
------------------------------
TOEFL Speakingの難関Task6の練習に入る。最初に、あの有名なHackersの本から。出てくる英語の表現も勉強しながらじっくり攻めていきたい。全体では70問位を目標に練習する予定。
----------------------------------------------
Practice test
The professor explains the human immune system by using two examples.
First, when a mosquito bites a human body, the body releases histamine to make the skin swell to prevent poison from entering the body.
Second, when foreign materials intrude into our nasal cavity, it sends a signal to the brain to eject the substance out of the body by sneezing,
These examples demonstrate the human immune system.
--------------------------------------------------
Test 1
The professor explains senses used for animal migration by using two examples.
First, ducks use the sense of sight. They look at the stars to know which direction points north. During day, they may deviate from the correct direction, but during night they can reorient by checking the stars.
Second, salmons use the sense of smell to migrate to a destination stream. They remember the scent of the destination, and when they arrive at a fork (when they must chose one route out of two or more streams), they know which way they should go.
These examples demonstrate senses used for animal migration.

Which direction points north
What aids the salmon in the journey
When they encounter a fork,
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Test 2
The professor explains human thermal regulation by using two examples.
First, physiological regulation. When exposed to cold temperatures, our body automatically sends a signal to muscle to shiver to generate heat.
Second, behavioral regulation. When exposed to hot temperatures, we consciously take evasive actions such as using a fan, going to shades, and drinking water, because we know these actions will help reduce our body temperatures.
These examples demonstrate two methods of human thermal regulation.

As we touched on before,
This triggers a shiver,
We humans want to take matters into our own hands.
When it is too hot out,
We know what will lower our body temperature. We act upon that knowledge.
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Test 3
The professor explains two features of anti-art.
First, the artists used ordinary common objects and items. A famous anti-artist used a urinal upside down.
Second, they used streets to display their artistic works, so that the public have access to them. For example, another famous anti-artist displayed meter pops in the streets, which are parking meters with lollipop heads.
These examples demonstrate two features of anti-art.

Art in the early 20the century had fallen under the purview of the middle and upper classes.
The mid-20th century saw a shift.
Common people want to bring the art to their doorstep.
For one thing, artists who ushered in this new definition of art had no desire to use traditional tools and mediums.
I proffered my hand. 差し出す
These artists had little interest in venues like museums, usually set aside for the upper class.
little more than a public urinal upside down
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Test 4
The professor explains changes created by the industrial revolution by using two examples.
First, everyday goods were made in factories instead of at home. Steam engines facilitated producing goods in large quantity and lower costs, so that making goods at individual homes were no longer necessary.
Second, workers migrated to cities where they can find jobs at factories. As a result, big cities with a large population of workers were developed.
These examples demonstrate how the industrial revolution transformed society.

We will discuss how the industrial revolution transformed society.
Post-industrial society saw the rise of modern cities.
People began to flock to these new cities.
This cycle of prosperity was responsible for turning cities into the sprawling (広大な) metropolises we see today.
---------------------------------------------
Test 5
The professor explains how camera angles affect the perception of viewers by giving two examples.
First, the low angle shot creates impressions of power and dominance. For example, Queen Victoria in a British film was depicted as a string person with dignity.
Second the high angle shot establishes images of weakness and solicits sympathy among viewers. For example, a person left in the middle of a dessert and his weakness can be effectively depicted by the high angle shots.
These two examples demonstrate camera angles in filmmaking.

An imposing royal figure
The further away, the more pathetic and helpless the character appears.
When the camera pans away from him, looking down on him in the endless expanse of desert『終わりのない広がり』, his helplessness is further emphasized to the audience.
--------------------------------------------
Test 6
The professor explains protective adaptations of animals by giving two examples.
First, he describes offensive adaptation. The quills of porcupines are an offensive trait. They look so intimidating and painful, predators are afraid of being close to the porcupines.
Second, he describes defensive adaptation. The shells of turtles are a defensive trait. When attacked by a predator, the turtle retracts all legs and head inside the shell. The shells of turtles are so hard that predators cannot crack the shell.
These examples demonstrate protective adaptations of animals.

Menacing-looking quills 脅威的な
These traits tend to manifest in one of two forms of protective adaptation.
Manifest in two forms 二つの形で表れる
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Test 7
The professor explains how loons’ feathers to protect them from cold temperatures by giving two examples.
First, down feathers. These thick and soft inner feathers function as insulation to protect loons from cold water. However, it may get soaked with water.
Second, contour feathers. These feathers are tightly packed outer layer feathers and function as repelling water to keep the inner down feathers dry. Oil is secreted to make the contour feathers more repellent to water.

These examples demonstrate how loons’ feathers protect them from cold temperatures.

---------------------------------------------
Test 8
The professor explains mutualism, a relation mutually beneficial to both organisms by giving two examples.

First, a plant when attacked by spider mites releases chemical odor to attract ladybugs. The ladybugs eat the spider mites.
Second, acacia trees release sugar nectar to attract ants, while ants fend off beetles and other predators of acacia trees.

These are good examples of mutualism between plants and insects.
-------------------------------------------------
Test 9
The professor explains types of communities by giving two examples.

First, communities of interest. Web designers can organize a conference where they can share their expertise and knowledge, or they can open up a web site to share the recent trend of the web design. By sharing information among members, the community becomes stronger.
Second, communalities of action. A local organization which issues a monthly newsletter have individuals to perform various functions such as writers, editors, distributers, and advertisers. By the division of labor, the community becomes stronger.
These are good examples of different types of communities.

First off, we have communities of interest.
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Test 10

The professor explains two types of advertising techniques to attract different types of people.
First, for those who are visually oriented consumers, advertisers may create an ad including visually exciting images. For example, an ad for a resort hotel may include scenes of sun setting or a couple relaxing at the beach.
Second, for those who are verbally oriented, advertisers may use enticing words. The same ad for the resort hotel may include a stimulating and tantalizing phrase like “Spend a weekend at this paradise.”
These are good examples of advertising techniques.

Pamper guest at the resort もてなす、甘やかす
Compel and tickle the ears. 耳を揺り動かす、くすぐる
Compel the soul of people 魂を強く揺り動かす
Let real you come out at our beach resort.
Tantalizing and exciting 興味をそそる
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Test 11
The professor explains two reasons why birds consume dirt.
First, dirt is used for digestion. For example, pigeons have no teeth, so they eat coarse soil to break seeds and other hard foods into small pieces in their stomach.
Second, dirt is used to protect against toxic substances. For instance, tropical parrots eat fine soil to coat the surface of their stomach, which absorb and prevents toxic substances of foods from entering their systems.
These examples demonstrate two reasons why birds consume dirt.

Take pigeons for example.
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Test 12
The professor explains two ways carnivorous plants catch insects.
First, the professor explains active trapping. Take Venice flytrap plants for example. They release sweet nectar to attract insects. Once an insect lands on a leave, it suddenly closes and digests it slowly.
Second, the professor explains passive trapping. Take Drosera plants, for example, which secrete sticky material on their leaves and when an insect lands on a leave, it gets stuck. Then, the plant wraps around it and slowly digests it.
These examples demonstrate how carnivorous plants catch insects..

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[タグ未指定]
[ 2013/01/12 11:01 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(2)

TOEFL学習記録132

T4-36
According to the reading, teachers should use study materials which can boost the curiosity of students. This is called interest boosting. The professor uses one example. His wife was a teacher and wanted to teach students about Marie Curie, a famous scientist in nuclear physics. Initially, student did not show interest to this subject. So she showed a movie about Marie, casted by famous movie stars. Then, student got interested in Marie and studied the subject intensively. This is a good example of interest boosting.
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T4-37
Operant conditioning (or instrumental conditioning) is a type of learning in which an individual's behavior is modified by its consequences.

According to the reading, when students misbehave, teachers can modify this behavior by either negative or positive reinforcements. This is called operant conditioning. The professor uses one example.

His sister was a teacher. One of her students, Jay, did not raise his hand before asking questions and disrupted the class. The teacher, during recess, said to Jay “Your questions are great but please raise your hand before asking questions”. Jay was very happy to hear this comment and from that point he always raised his hand before questioning. This is a good example of operant conditioning.
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T4-38
Optimal foraging theory is an idea in ecology based on the study of foraging behaviour and states that organisms forage in such a way as to maximize their net energy intake per unit time.

According to the reading, animals try to maximize the amount of prey while minimizing the energy used for foraging. This is called optimum foraging. The professor uses one example.
A sea bird preys on shellfish. First, the bird tries to catch the largest shellfish in the water. Second, the bird selects an optimum flying height required for dropping and breaking the shell. If too high, he loses energy, while if too low the shell would not break. This is a good example of optimum foraging.
-----------------------------------------
T4-39
The planning fallacy is a tendency for people and organizations to underestimate how long they will need to complete a task, even when they have experience of similar tasks over-running.

According to the reading, some people underestimate how long it will take to complete a task, even though they previously did the same mistake on the similar task. This is called planning fallacy. The professor uses his own experience.
When he was s student, he had to write a ten page report. He though this was an easy task and waited until the last day. He borrowed some books from the library, but could not make ten page report. He needed more books to complete the report, but the library was already closed. He ended up with being late for the due date and received a poor grading on the report. This is a good example of planning fallacy.
----------------------------------------------------
T4-40
According to the reading, our behaviors have either negative or positive effects on out personal relationships. The professor uses his own experience.
He moved to a new neighborhood and was invited to a party. He met a person who shares the same hobbies and he talked with this person for a long time. Eventually they become close friends. In contrast, he met another person at his garden, but he had a headache on that day and did not talk with the person friendly and rejected an invitation to his house for coffee. They never developed a close relation. This is a good example of negative and positive effects.
--------------------------------
T4-41
According to the reading, some animals can control the number of members in a group depending on situations. This is called self-maintaining ability. The professor uses one example.
Gorillas form a large group during night to protect themselves from enemies, while during day they separate into several smaller groups to effectively search for foods. This is a good example of self-maintainability of animals.
---------------------------------------------
これでTask4の学習は終了。テンプレートは完全にマスターできたので、自信がついてきた。どんな問題が出ても対応できそうな気がする。次はTask6の攻略。70~80問は練習したい。

[タグ未指定]
[ 2013/01/11 10:27 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(0)

TOEFL学習記録131

-----------------------------------
T4-21
According to the reading, some students are distracted by external stimulus and as a result, cannot concentrate on his study. By removing such stimulus, students can better concentrate on his work. This is called stimulus reduction.
The professor uses one example.
His student Steven was often distracted by birds and trees outside the windows and as a result he failed one exam. The professor changed his seat to a place far from the windows. Then, he was no longer disturbed and performed better in the next exam.
This is a good example of stimulus reduction.
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T4-22
According to the reading, students learn better if he or she selects learning materials rather than teachers selecting materials. This is called student-centered learning. The professor uses one example.
His daughter was learning how to play guitar. First, the teacher selected a song and asked her to demonstrate. She was distracted and this did not go well with her. Then, the teacher asked her to select her own favorite song to demonstrate. She got interested and worked very hard on this song and her skills significantly improved in a short period.
This is a good example of student-centered learning.
---------------------------------------------------------------
T4-23
According to the reading, in biology there is a rule of thumb that animals living in colder climate tend to be bigger, while those living in warmer areas tend to be smaller. This is called Bergmann’s rule. The professor uses one example.
Sparrows living in warmer areas tend to be smaller than those living in colder climate.
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T4-24
According to the reading, babies before developing speaking skills can communicate with parents using non-verbal means and this communication goes in both directions from infants to parents and vice versa. This is called bi-directional communication. The professor uses one example.
A six month old baby smiled when he wanted be held by parents, cried when he was hungry, and screamed when he wanted his diaper to be changed.
This is a good example of bi-directional communication.
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T4-25
According to the reading, there are two stages of competency in doing some skills, conscious and unconscious competence. The professor explains them.
When he was a beginner in typing, he practiced typing carefully and consciously, so he made few typing mistakes. In contrast, when he became fully confident in typing, he was able to type while doing other activities, but actually made more typing mistakes. These explain the two stages of competency.
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T4-26
According to the reading, some people tend to select information that supports his idea or preference and ignore information that does not support his idea. This is called confirmation bias. The professor uses one example.
One woman really liked a hybrid car and wanted to buy one. Although this car had negative sides such as frequently breaking down, she ignored it and bought the car. In the end, she had to frequently fix the car after purchase.
This is a good example of confirmation bias.
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T4-27
According to the reading, some plants have very unique defense mechanisms. The professor uses an example of poison sumac.
This plant has two stages of defense mechanism.
First, when this plant is harmed, it releases a toxic liquid. Second, other plants in the vicinity also release the toxic substance to protect from predators. This is a good example of a unique defense mechanism of plants.
-------------------------
T4-28
According to the reading, ergonomic design produces products that bring convenience to users. The professor uses his own experience to explain this.
He used to be working in an office answering calls from clients. He had to reach for a file while holding his phone between his chin and shoulder, which eventually gave him neck ache. His supervisor gave him a hand free phone, which solved his problem.
This is a good example of ergonomic design.
---------------------------------------
T4-29
According to the reading, animals issue signals to attract mates and some animals can mimic the signal of another animal to lure it into a trap. This is called false signaling. The professor uses one example.
Every mating season, moth issues a signal to attract mates. Bowler spiders can mimic this signal to lure them into a web to prey.
This is a good example of false signaling.
------------------------------------------------
T4-30
According to the reading, money comes in various forms. The professor uses two examples to explain them.
First, money comes in the form of coins and bills. When one uses a taxi, one can use bills and coins to pay for the fare.
Second, if the taxi driver agrees, one can pay with agricultural products instead of using coin and bills, although the government does not endorse this kind of payment.
----------------------------------
T4-31
The founder effect is the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population.

According to the reading, when a small number of population moves away from the main population and settles at a new location, the genetic variation tends to lost. This is called founder effect. The professor uses one example of a plant.
This tall plant was abundant in the main island. Some seeds of this plant travelled across the sea and grew on a small island. The height of the plant became shorter than the original size.
This is a good example of the founder effect.
----------------------------------------------------
T4-32
The halo effect or halo error is a cognitive bias in which our judgments of a person’s character can be influenced by our overall impression of him or her.

According to the reading, people tend to judge other persons based on limited or biased information. This is called halo error or halo effect. The professor uses his own experience.

When he was a university student, he looked for a roommate from a list of candidates. He selected a person who was an excellent physics student. He thought those who are good at physics must be neat and tidy person. In reality, this person never cleaned their shared room and his initial impression was completely wrong. This is a good example of halo error.
-------------------------------------------
T4-33
According to the reading, when we see an image in an advertisement repeatedly, we often connect the image with the product. This is called image advertising. The professor uses one example.
A cookie company used an image of a large bear in their advertisements. After watching the ad repeatedly, consumers strongly connected the image of the bear with the cookies. When they see a bear, they automatically associate it with the cookies. This is a good example of image advertising.
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T4-34
An example of information bias is believing that the more information that can be acquired to make a decision, the better, even if that extra information is irrelevant for the decision.

According to the reading, people tend to think that more information is always better to make a decision, although additional information is often irrelevant to the decision. This is called information bias. The professor uses his own experience to explain this.
The professor wanted to hire an assistant and interviewed candidates. The first person was an ideal person for the job, but the professor continued interviewing other candidates. When he decided to hire the first candidate, he was already hired by another project. This is a good example of information bias.
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T4-35
According to the reading, molding is an advertising technique to explain in detail how to use a product, so that consumers feel confident in using the product. The professor uses his own experience.
The professor wanted to purchase an ice cream maker, but he hesitated because the process of making ice cream seemed so complicated. One day he saw an ad which explained everything about how to use this ice cream maker. He was convinced that the process was not so complicated and finally bought the unit. This is a good example of molding.
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[タグ未指定]
[ 2013/01/10 23:26 ] TOEFL学習記録 | TB(-) | CM(0)
プロフィール

Andy

Author:Andy
プロフィール:

TOEIC 990点
英検1級合格二次試験100点(優秀賞)
TOEFL iBT 119点(2015年7月11日、2年間有効)

名前:Andy
年齢:59歳
学歴:University of Missouri at Rolla 工学部原子力工学科卒業
職業:技術系の通訳を30年以上やっています。

仕事柄、欧米人と仕事をすることが多く、Andyというニックネームを使っています。
北陸の田舎に住んでいます。毎週、北陸新幹線にお世話になっています。
コシヒカリを食べて育った純粋な日本人です。
韓国語、中国語は全くできません。

毎月TOEFLを受験しています。
ソラシティ、武蔵小杉、テンプル大学麻布校3階が好きな会場です。

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